The paper presents the results of the spread of the tetrahydrothiophene (THT) - used as odourant - in the gas network. Such analyses allow quick detection of leaks in networks, systems and devices of gas supply directly to consumers. The main goal of the study was to determine the effectiveness of the use of portable chromatograph and comparing it with a stationary odourant concentration analyser. Based on these studies, an attempt to determine the odouration zone for the selected city have been also taken. For this purpose, three series of measurements were made - in each series 13 points were analysed. Obtained results confirmed the effectiveness of the measurement a concentration of odourant in the gas network using a portable gas chromatograph - difference in relation to the stationary chromatograph ranged from 1.91 to 2.55 %.
Air quality is an issue of general, global interest, which requires the implementation of appropriate environmental policies, taking into account the essential connection between the world economy and the environment. Air is an important natural element of the environment, vital for human life and health, as well as for fauna and flora, and it needs to be protected by all means, including legal methods.
Lately, scientific studies and researches have shown that the chemical structure of the atmosphere is changing for natural or anthropogenic causes, which requires more effective monitoring of the impact of human activity on the atmosphere, doubled by the implementation of radical measures, including legal ones, meant to insure the protection of this environmental element.
The increase in the quantity of polluting gases eliminated into the atmosphere causes global warming, destroying the ozone layer and generating other imbalances in the natural environment.
In these conditions, and since pollution knows no political-administrative borders, being a global phenomenon, there is an absolute need for international cooperation based on conventions and treatises on this topic, or directives from international bodies and organisations, and at a national level, the environmental legislation must aim to protect the air in the troposphere as well as the other elements outside the troposphere, such as the ozone layer, which is part of the stratosphere.
Jana Júdová, Radoslava Kanianska, Jana JaĎuĎová, Miriam Kizeková and Jarmila Makovníková
Land use changes are local phenomena with global impact. They have an impact in a cumulative sense on biodiversity or soil degradation. This study aimed to examine the effects of different land-uses (arable land, permanent grasslands, abandoned grasslands, forest land) on the selected biotic and abiotic soil parameters in the Slovak mountain study sites Liptovská Teplička and Tajov. Biotic (microbial community structure, earthworm number and fresh body biomass, arthropod number and fresh body biomass), and abiotic chemical soil parameters (pH, total organic carbon, total nitrogen, nutrients) were measured. According to MALDI-TOF (Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight), several bacterial strains were identified. Mutual relations between soil microorganisms and soil biotic and abiotic properties determined by different land uses were analysed. Microbial response expressed as average well-colour development (AWCD) values indicated relations between higher microbial diversity and higher nutrient availability at both study sites. In the comparison of land use types, permanent grasslands (PG) showed the lowest microbial activity in the depth of 0–0.1 m. But in the depth of 0.2-0.3 m in PG of both study sites, the higher microbial activity was recorded compared to the depth of 0-0.1 m. In addition, lower AWCD values in PG were in line with the lower available P and K content but higher earthworm density and biomass.
N. O. Orieke, O.S. Asaolu, T. A. Fashanu and O. A. Fasanmade
Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder that affects the ability of the human body to properly utilize and regulate glucose. It is pervasive world-wide yet tenuous and costly to manage. Diabetes Mellitus is also difficult to model because it is nonlinear, dynamic and laden with mostly patient specific uncertainties. A neuro-fuzzy model for the prediction of blood glucose level in Type 1 diabetic patients using coupled insulin and meal effects is developed. This study establishes that the necessary and sufficient conditions to predict blood glucose level in a Type 1 diabetes mellitus patient are: knowledge of the patient’s insulin effects and meal effects under diverse metabolic scenarios and the transparent coupling of the insulin and meal effects. The neuro-fuzzy models were trained with data collected from a single Type 1 diabetic patient covering a period of two months. Clarke’s Error Grid Analysis (CEGA) of the model shows that 87.5% of the predictions fall into region A, while the remaining 12.5% of the predictions fall into region B within a four (4) hour prediction window. The model reveals significant variation in insulin and glucose responses as the Body Mass Index (BMI) of the patient changes.
Ivan Korshikov, Yulia Belonozhko and Helena Lapteva
In this study, we compare the pathological mitosis rates, chromosomal abnormalities and nucleolar organizer activity in Pinus pallasiana D. Don seedlings from natural population in the Crimean Mountains and from the urban plantations in the steppe of Ukraine. On the stages of anaphase and telophase of mitosis, such chromosomal abnormalities as bridges were most often found in the seeds of plantations exposed to air pollutants, whereas lead and agglutination of chromosomes were found in seeds from iron ore dump stands. Our studies have shown that P. pallasiana can be used for genotoxic monitoring of technogenic polluted lands.
Rageh K. Hussein, Ibrahim I. Bashter, Mohamed El-Okr and Medhat Ahmed Ibrahim
Density of states and geometrical structures of modified Lead zirconate titanate are investigated using density functional theory within local density approximation. The electronic properties and bond length variation have been studied in terms of electronic structure and bonding mechanism principles respectively. Hybridization between Ti 3d - O 2p states and ferroelectric distortion have been addressed as a theoretical approach, to rule the improvement of ferroelectric properties of Lead zirconate titanate. The analysis of Ga, Tl modified Lead zirconate titanate were found to diminish the hybridization between Ti 3d - O 2p states, the relaxed behavior lead to the reversal of the known ferroelectric distortion. Y, Ho, Yb and Lu modified Lead zirconate titanate compounds have a tendency to intense the ferroelectric stability, its exhibit higher hybridization between Ti 3d - O 2p states than pure Lead zirconate titanate, also the arrangement of the ions distortions is strongly the same as the more favoured ferroelectric states of Lead zirconate titanate.
Hetal I. Doctor, Sanman K. Samova and Ramtej J. Verma
Extensive use of chemicals in personal care products has led to many health issues. Diethanolamine is one of such harmful chemicals containing two highly functional groups alcohol and amine that requires toxicological evaluation and its mitigation. Swiss strain albino mice were used and divided into different control and treated groups. Different doses of DEA (110, 165 and 330 mg/kg body weight/day) were orally administered for 30 days. Biochemical and histopathological assessments were performed at the end of the treatment. Results collectively revealed body weight loss as well as significant increase in absolute and relative liver weight in DEA-treated groups. Biochemical analysis revealed that DEA treatment further promotes significant (P<0.05), dose-dependent increase in lipid and cholesterol contents and also cause decrease in protein and glycogen content. Histopathological assessment confirms vacuole formation due to accumulation of lipid within the liver tissue. Administration of curcumin (10, 20 and 30 mg/kg body weight/day) along with high dose of DEA (330 mg/kg body weight/day) showed improved values of lipid, cholesterol, protein and glycogen contents. It also helped retaining normal histological structure of liver. Observations in all groups and results indicate DEA-treatment causes hepatic steatosis and treatment of curcumin attenuated effect of DEA that is due to its potential antioxidant properties.
Soil quality (SQ) dynamics assessment vis-à-vis land use/land cover (LULC) and elevation variations in Ethiopia is desirable as elevation impact on land use is highly pronounced. This study examined SQ indicators dynamics across LULC and elevation variations. For this, surface soil samples (0−20 cm) were collected from the recognized LULC categories of different elevations in Wanka watershed, northwestern Ethiopian highlands. Both disturbed and undisturbed soil samples that were taken from three adjacent LULC (natural forest, grazing and cultivated lands) and elevation (2238–2300, 2400–2600, and 2700–2800) classes analysed for the selected physico-chemical SQ indicators. Two-way ANOVA, Tukey’s multiple comparison test and SQ deterioration index were computed. The impact of LULC and elevation was found significant on key SQ indicators. In cultivated and grazing lands, soil organic matter (SOM) and soil nutrients like total nitrogen declined significantly (p < 0.01). Conversely, bulk density increased significantly (p < 0.01). The divalent basic cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+), cation exchange capacity and pH significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in upper elevation. Synergetic effect of LULC and elevation variations was found significant (p < 0.01) on SOM, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, water content at field capacity and soil particle distribution (silt and clay). Thus, elevation specific land management strategies that improve these SQ indicators need to be emphasized.
Oľga Šestinová, Jozef Hančuľák and Tomislav Špaldon
This study was conducted to investigate heavy metals bioaccumulation in industrialized soils in surrounding of Košice city (Slovakia), using earthworms. In the present research, we used ecotoxicity tests with Dendrobaena veneta (7 and 28-day bioassays) to infer about potential toxic risks to the agricultural (A) and permanent grass vegetation (PGV) of soils around the plant U. S. Steel Košice. The total Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr and As contents and eco-toxicological tests of industrialized soils from the Košice area were performed for 12 sampling sites in years 2016 – 2017. An influence of the sampling sites distance from the largest steel producer plant on the total concentrations of heavy metals was determined for Fe, Cd, Cr and As. It was found that earthworms (Dendrobaena veneta) in some cases caused a decrease of metals concentration in contaminated soils, the largest metal concentration differences were recorded in the samples PGV (4) U. S. Steel-plant-main gate. The results of the bioaccumulation factors of heavy metals in D. veneta (BAFs/7-28 d) are < 1 for the studied metals order in the sequence: Cr < Fe < Pb < Cu < As and > 1 for Zn > Cd.
The performance and economic simulation and modeling are crucial for accurate and rapid designing, construction, and forecasting future economic needs of municipal wastewater treatment plants (MWWTPs). In this study, combined nitrifying trickling filter/activated sludge (NTF/AS) process was suggested for the modernization of a MWWTP and the performance and economics of MWWTPs based on the combined TF/AS process and combined NTF/AS process were analyzed and compared. In real, the performance, total project construction, total operation labor, total maintenance labor, total material, total chemical, total energy, and total amortization costs of these proposed MWWTPs were calculated and compared. Under the used design criteria and operational conditions in this study, the project construction cost of the MWWTP based on TF/AS was 15.25 % higher than that of the MWWTP based on NTF/AS. Also, MWWTP based on NTF/AS was cost effective and the material and amortization costs for both plants were higher in comparison with the operation, maintenance, energy, and chemical costs. It is necessary to note that this study is a computer simulation for a case and drawing general conclusions only on the basis of this simulation may be insufficient.