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Chemical Composition of the Essential Oil of Aerial Parts of Thymus ciliatus (Desf.)

Abstract

The essential oil of the aerial parts of Thymus ciliatus (Desf.) belonging to the Lamiaceae family, was obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. 75 components were identified corresponding to 95.57% of the total oil. The major constituents of the oil were: elemol (6.80%), carvacrol (5.86%), γ-muurolene (5.18%), β-sesquiphellandrene (5.09%), bicyclogermacrene (5.04%), β-pinene (4.49%) and curcumene (4.20%), together with other compounds at relatively low levels: 1,8-cineol (3.66%), β-eudesmol (2.92%), β-bisabolene (2.81%), β-silinene (2.75%), camphor (2.64%), germacrone (2.34%), α-zingiberene (2.12%), δ-cadinene (2.08%), caryophyllene oxide (1.90%), spathulenol (1.88%), □-caryophyllene (1.88%), ar-turmerone (1.79%), α-pinene (1.52%), limonene (1.52%), selina-4,11-diene (1.46%), curzerenone (1.41%), germacrone B (1.37%), bornyl acetate (1.31%), β-farnesene (1.28%), borneol (1.23%), myrtenal (1.16%), zingiberenol (1.15%) and sabinene (1.13%). These results differ from those of previous studies reported on this species collected from other regions of Algeria and Morocco.

Open access
Coastal Processes and Longshore Sediment Transport along Zemmouri Bay, Central East Coast of Algeria

Abstract

The coastline of Zemmouri Bay on the northeast coast of Algeria with about 50 km of shoreline has been eroding since 1970. Changes of the sandy shoreline are continuous and occur at diverse spatial and temporal scales. This erosion is a major crisis and it potentially impacts the coastal population and natural environment. In order to understand and predict these morphological changes, an accurate description of sediment transport by waves and currents and shoreline change is important. This paper presents a comprehensive study of wave refraction, current-driven sediment transport and shoreline change. Results show that the study area exhibits a great variety of shoreline evolution trends, with erosion prevailing in the eastern and central sectors and stability or even accretion in the Western area.

Open access
Comparative Analysis of Macro- and Microstructure of Printed Elements in the FDM, SLS and MJ Technologies

Abstract

The article presents research conducted with the project: ‘Additive manufacturing in conduction with optical methods used for optimization of 3D models’’ [2]. The article begins with the description of properties of the materials used in three different additive technologies – Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) and Material Jetting (MJ). The next part focuses on the comparative analysis of macro- and microstructure of specimens printed in order to test selected materials in additive technologies mentioned above. In this research two types of specimens were used: dumbbell specimens and rectangular prism with hole specimens. In order to observe macrostructure specimens, they were subjected to load test until it broke. In the case of observing microstructure, they were cut in some places. Each of described additive technologies characterizes by both different way of printing and used materials. These variables have a significant influence on macro- and microstructure and fracture appearance. FDM technology specimens printed of ABS material characterized by texture surface appearance. SLS technology specimens printed of PA12 material characterized by amorphous structure. MJ technology specimens printed of VeroWhite Plus material characterized by fracture appearance which had quasi- fatigue features. The microstructure of these specimens was uniform with visible inclusions.

Open access
Comparison of Composite Laminates Machining Methods and its Influence on Process Temperature and Edge Quality

Abstract

The article presents the description of technological trials and the results of three methods of machining carbon fiber reinforced composites panels. It also reviews the literature concerned heat affected zone in composites and its influence on material properties. As a part of the research, the cutting method using diamond coated saw was tested, as well as the milling method with two different types of carbide milling cutters. The processing of the panels was done using 4-axis CNC machine with special adapter for cutting discs in Composite Testing Laboratory (Center for Composite Technologies, Warsaw Institute of Aviation). The methods were compared in terms of machined edge quality and panel temperature during the processes. For this purpose, thermocouples were mounted into panels. Records from thermocouples were included. Edge quality and surface roughness have been checked by microscopic observation. Additionally, samples machined by each evaluated processing method were tested using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The method was used to determine the glass transition temperature of the tested material. The article conclusions contain a comparison of three processing methods in terms of cutting quality, process temperature, processing method productivity as well as DSC tests results.

Open access
Conductivity change with needle electrode during high frequency irreversible electroporation: a finite element study

Abstract

Irreversible electroporation (IRE) is a process in which the cell membrane is damaged and leads to cell death. IRE has been used as a minimally invasive ablation tool. This process is affected by some factors. The most important factor is the electric field distribution inside the tissue. The electric field distribution depends on the electric pulse parameters and tissue properties, such as the electrical conductivity of tissue. The present study focuses on evaluating the tissue conductivity change due to high-frequency and low-voltage (HFLV) as well as low-frequency and high-voltage (LFHV) pulses during irreversible electroporation. We were used finite element analysis software, COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, to calculate the conductivity change of the liver tissue. The HFLV pulses in this study involved 4000 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 5 kHz, pulse width of 100 µs, and electric field intensity from 100 to 300 V/cm. On the other hand, the LFHV pulses, which we were used, included 8 bipolar and monopolar pulses with a frequency of 1 Hz, the pulse width of 2 ms and electric field intensity of 2500 V/cm. The results demonstrate that the conductivity change for LFHV pulses due to the greater electric field intensity was higher than for HFLV pulses. The most significant conclusion is the HFLV pulses can change tissue conductivity only in the vicinity of the tip of electrodes. While LFHV pulses change the electrical conductivity significantly in the tissue of between electrodes.

Open access
Contributions to the Analysis of Building’s Durability Made of Local Materials

Abstract

This paper presents a synthesis of research carried out by authors on local materials used in construction over time in South Eastern Romania. The earth in various forms and technologies has been a perfectible building material that by technologies and specific procedures confers resistance and structural stability. For the research the authors have selected a few specific types of buildings detailing on structural compliance, their sustainability and the factors that led to the depreciation of the building.

Open access
Correlation between age and head diameters in the paediatric patients during CT examination of the head

Abstract

An estimate of patient dose, patient size should be used to normalise the output dose of CT machine in the terms of volume CT dose index, CTDIvol. There are two metrics to characterise the patient size, i.e. the effective diameter (Deff) and the water-equivalent diameter (Dw). These two metrics could be estimated by patient age. However, to date, relationships between the age and head patient size (Deff and Dw) have not been established for the pediatric patients. The aim of this study was to establish the relationships between the age and head patient size (Deff and the Dw) as the basis for calculating the size-specific dose estimate (SSDE) for paediatric head CT examination. The data were retrospectively collected from serial images of the CT head in the DICOM file from one hundred and thirteen paediatric patients aged 0-17 years (63 male and 50 female patients) underwent head CT examinations. The patient’s sizes (Deff and Dw) were calculated from the patient’s images using the IndoseCT version 15a software. The Deff and Dw values were correlated with age of patients using regression analysis. It was found that patient size (Deff and Dw) correlated well with the age of the patient with R2 more than 0.8. The size of the Dw is bigger than the Deff. The Deff values for male patients are 12.38 to 16.21 cm, and Dw values are 11.96 to 18.16 cm, respectively. For female patients, the values of Deff are from 11.54 to 16.87 cm, and the values of Dw are from 11.60 to 17.86 cm, respectively.

Open access
Cost-effective approach to lung cancer risk for a radiological dispersal device (RDD) scenario

Abstract

A release of radioactive material into the environment can lead to hazardous exposure of the population and serious future concerns about health issues such as an increased incidence of cancer. In this context, a practical methodology capable of providing useful basic information from the scenario can be valuable for immediate decisions and future risk assessment. For this work, the simulation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) filled with americium-241 was considered. The radiation dose simulated by the HotSpot code was used as an input to the epidemiological equations from BEIR V producing the data used to assess the risk of lung cancer development. The methodology could be useful in providing training for responders aimed to the initial support addressed to decision-making for emergency response at the early phase of an RDD scenario. The results from the simulation allow estimating (a) the size of the potentially affected population, (b) the type of protection action considering gender and location of the individuals, (c) the absorbed doses, (d) the matrix of lung cancer incidence predictions over a period of 5 years, and (e) the cost-effectiveness in the initial decision environment.

Open access
Creating a Sustainable Business Model in the Construction Firm

Abstract

Every firm today is facing significant problems which are a consequence of the influence of external and internal factors. This necessitates strategic changes in its activities, which focus on the development of the basic elements of intangible assets - people, knowledge and system, whose effective combination allows building competitive advantage and company growth. The main, specific intangible resource of the company is the business model itself, which is the economic basis of the strategic behavior of the company. From this point of view the purpose of the study is: 1) developing a sustainable business model for the construction firm, 2) analyzing the mechanism by which the manager creates and/or develops his own sustainable business model, taking into account the specifics of the construction market.

Open access