The article describes 10 known programmes of practical flight training in military aviation – specialization: Multi-Mission Tactical Jet Pilot, which is the highest level of military pilot training in all types of military and civil aviation – comparable only to the level of training and experience of the pilot-instructor of the Military Aviation School. The presented comparison was developed on the basis of literature research from the point of view of, among others, an aircraft operation engineer and a pilot-instructor.
The objective of the paper is to analyze the cooperation in craft beer manufacturing in Poland and to identify the specificity of this phenomenon from the perspective of enterprise management. The sales of craft beers in Poland are growing rapidly. Craft beers have about a 0.5% share in the total beer sales value in Poland. The popular practice in the industry is contract brewing. It is an interesting phenomenon in the field of cooperation of enterprises which can be classified and analyzed as a form of: economic cooperation (generally), production cooperation, outsourcing, network and virtual organization and also coopetition. It is a specific business model. Contract brewing is a complex problem the specificity of which emerges on several levels. Firstly, there is a special way to emerge in the market of craft beers, even while not possessing significant funds by the entrepreneur. Secondly, it is a form of cooperation in the field of production which unites efforts on the side of both the customer and the contractor since it is not limited to normal outsourcing of production to an external entity but involves physical production capacity of the contractor and technological know-how of both cooperation parties. Thirdly, it is firmly embedded in human relationships. Fourthly, it can generate coopetitive relations since the brewery accepting the order may conduct its own activity related to production and sales of beer under its own brand.
In this study, CdZnO films prepared at different ratios of dopants (CdO:ZnO = 5:5, CdO:ZnO = 6:4, and CdO:ZnO = 8:2) were coated on glass surface by using the sol-gel spin coating technique. After this process, surface structure and optical properties of the CdZnO films was investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The surface structure of the CdZnO films depended on the content of ZnO and CdO in the films. Low percentage of CdO films were very similar to the ZnO film but higher amount of CdO resuted in granular structures together with pure structure of ZnO in the films. Eg values of produced CdZnOs depended on the additions of CdO and ZnO. The obtained Eg values of the produced CdO:ZnO = 5:5 (S3), CdO:ZnO = 6:4 (S4), and CdO:ZnO = 8:2 (S5) films are 2.5 eV, 2.49 eV, and 2.4 eV, respectively.
Nanocomposite silica thin films made using the sol-gel method were studied. The nano-silica films were prepared using a mixture of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), deionized water, ethanol, and ammonia solution. To control the growth of the particles inside the film, the nanocomposite silica film was prepared using a mixture of the nano-silica sol and the silica sol. The change in the particle size with the heat treatment temperature ranging from 450 °C to 1100 °C was investigated. X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), NKD (refractive index-N, extinction coefficient-K, and thickness-D) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometry were used for characterization purposes. The XRD studies showed that the nano-silica thin films were amorphous at all annealing temperatures except for 1100 °C. The_-cristobalite crystal structure formed at the annealing temperature of 1100 °C. Optical parameters, such as refractive indices and extinction coefficients, were obtained using the NKD analyzer with respect to the annealing temperature of the films. The activation energy and enthalpy of the nanocomposite silica film were evaluated as 22.3 kJ/mol and 14.7 kJ/mol, respectively. The cut-off wavelength values were calculated by means of extrapolation of the absorbance spectra estimated using the UV-Vis spectroscopy measurements. A red shift in the absorption threshold of the nanocomposite silica films indicated that the size of the silica nanoparticles increased with an increase of the annealing temperatures from 450 °C to 900 °C, and this confirms the quantum confinement effect in the nanoparticles.
Structural, electronic, intrinsic magnetic, anisotropic elastic properties, sound velocities and Debye temperature of Fe1−xMnx B (x = 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1) transition metal monoborides have been studied by first-principles calculations within the method of virtual crystal approximation (VCA) based on density-functional theory (DFT) through generalized gradient approximation (GGA). The average magnetic moment per cell increased with increasing of Mn content, which could be associated with the relationship between the composition and magnetic properties. The observed magnetic behavior of Fe1−xMnx B compounds can be explained by Stoner model. Lattice parameters and Debye temperature agree well with the experimental values. Furthermore, we have plotted three-dimensional (3D) surfaces and planar contours of the directional dependent Young and bulk moduli of the compounds on several crystallographic planes, to reveal their elastic anisotropy versus Mn content (x) in Fe1−xMnx B.
Oleksii Hunyak, Khrystyna Sobol, Taras Markiv and Volodymyr Bidos
Concrete block pavements have become an attractive engineering and economical alternative to both flexible and rigid pavements because of it’s high strength and durability. The influence of pozzolanic mineral additions – natural zeolite and expanded perlite powder on the properties of concrete interlocking blocks in different curing conditions has been studied. The use of zeolite as a substitute for cement in the production of concrete blocks increased the water demand but decreased the water absorption of the blocks. Obtained results show, that concrete blocks with 10% substitution of cement with zeolitic tuff is characterized by higher strength, lower mass loss and absence of efflorescence.
Nuray Ucar, Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Mervin Olmez, Elif Can and Ayşen Onen
Graphene, a carbon allotrope, became a significant area of research with its superior electrical, mechanical, optical properties, etc. There are several methods to obtain graphene oxide from graphite, one of which is the Hummers method. In this study, several modifications and pre-treatments preceding the Hummers method have been employed. Three different graphene oxide fibers have been produced by three different procedures, i.e. fibers obtained by Hummers method with pre-oxidation step, modified Hummers method and modified Hummers method with pre-oxidation step. It has been observed that pre-oxidation has a significant effect on graphene oxide fiber properties produced by wet spinning process (coagulation). Modified Hummers method without pre-oxidation leads to the highest breaking strength and breaking elongation. Reduced fiber linear density, breaking strength and breaking elongation together with increased crimp were observed in graphene fiber due to the addition of pre-oxidation step.
Fillali Cherif, Ilyes Baba Ahmed, Abdelkader Abderrahmane and Saad Hamzaoui
Silicon as a raw material for solar cells can be produced by numerous methods. The carbothermic reduction of silica using electric arc furnace is the most widely used process in silicon industry. This paper presents a new approach to produce solar grade silicon using microwave furnace. Pellets of different sizes were prepared from a mixture of silica and carbon using water and polyvinyl alcohol as binder agents. Raman spectra indicated a peak at about 515 cm−1 attributed to silicon in the pellets prepared with polyvinyl alcohol, and peaks at about 523 cm−1 and 794 cm−1 attributed to silicon and silicon carbide, in the pellets prepared with water. The pellet size affects the absorption of microwave energy emitted from the magnetrons. Polyvinyl alcohol as a binder agent is promising for the production of silicon using microwave furnace.
K.K. Pathak, Mimi Akash Pateria, Kusumanjali Deshmukh and Piyush Jha
Present paper reports optical and electrical properties of samarium doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin film which was grown on a glass substrate by chemical bath deposition method (CBD). X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the deposited films were nanocrystalline with sphalerite cubic structure. The average crystallite size calculated from FWHM of XRD peaks was found to be 10.11 nm. The bandgap of the Sm doped CdSe nanocrystalline thin films was calculated to be 1.91 eV to 2.22 eV. The optical absorption edge of undoped (pure) and Sm doped CdSe films was obtained between 650 nm to 640 nm showing blue shift as compared to bulk CdSe. Sm doping further enhanced the photoconductivity of these films. The I-V characteristic confirmed the suitability of prepared films for photosensor applications.
The paper presents application of Particle Image Velocimetry for determination of an airfoil’s drag coefficient in wind tunnel tests. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using PIV as an alternative to pressure rake measurements, especially at high angles of attack. The integral momentum concept was applied for determination of fluid drag from experimental low speed wind tunnel data. The drag coefficient was calculated from velocity and pressure rake data for intermediate angles of attack from 5° to 10°. Additionally, the experimental results were compared to panel method results. After validating the procedures at low angles of attack, the drag coefficient was calculated at close to critical angles of attack. The presented study proved that PIV technique can be considered as an attractive alternative for drag coefficient determination of an airfoil.