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The non-linear electrical properties of silver/silver chloride electrodes in sodium chloride solution

Abstract

An electrical measurement is non-linear when it is affected by the applied stimulus, i.e. when the measured phenomenon changes with amplitude. If pinched hysteresis loops can be observed in the voltage current representation, the underlying tissue can be classified as a memristor. Several biological memristors have been published, like human skin and apples. However, changes in the polarization impedance of electrodes may also cause pinched hysteresis loops. The question whether the reported biological memristors are real or whether the results just reflect changes in the polarization impedance arises. If the impedance of the measured object is close to or smaller than the polarization impedance of the used electrodes, the latter may dominate the measurement.

In this study, we investigated the non-linear electrical properties of silver/silver chloride electrodes in a sodium chloride solution that has a similar concentration as human sweat and compared these to results from human skin. First of all, we found that silver/silver chloride electrodes in sodium chloride solution can be classified as memristors. However, the currents obtained from the sodium chloride solution are much higher than the currents recorded from human skin and there is a qualitative difference in the pinched hysteresis loops in both cases. We can conclude that the non-linear electrical measurements with silver/silver chloride on human skin are actually dominated by the skin and we can confirm that the human skin memristor really exists.

Open access
Nursing students’ experiences of caring for dying patients and their families: a systematic review and meta-synthesis

Abstract

Objective

Nurses play important roles in caring for dying patients and their families. Difficulties students confronted when facing dying patients challenge the quality of nursing education. A better understanding of students’ experiences would enhance teachers’ ability in helping students. This study aims to describe available evidence about nursing students’ experiences when caring for dying patients and their families.

Methods

A review of qualitative studies published between 2005 and 2017 was undertaken using the following databases: MEDLINE, CINAHL, ProQuest Central, ScienceDirect, and CNKI. The keywords included were nursing students, experience, care, end-of-life, and dying. Qualitative Assessment and Review Instrument was used to assess the quality of the studies by two independent reviewers. The data from the studies were analyzed by meta-synthesis.

Results

Eighteen English and two Chinese studies were selected in this review. Four themes were emerged: (1) Students with dying patients: students did not have enough ability in symptoms control, comfort supply, and therapeutic communication for dying patients. (2) Students with the patients’ families: students advocated more caring for patients’ families. (3) Students with the surroundings: professional medical staffs, especially the nursing preceptors, were key roles in constructing a supporting system for students. (4) Students with themselves: nursing students underwent various negative feelings and adopted both negative and positive strategies to cope with such feelings; students experienced professional and personal development during the caring for dying patients.

Conclusions

Nursing students’ abilities in terminal symptom control, comfort supply, and therapeutic communication should be improved by more theoretic learning and simulation practice. The nursing preceptors were key roles in constructing a supporting system for students and helping them to control the negative emotions when facing dying patients.

Open access
Patient safety culture regarding intravenous therapy in Guangzhou, China: a cross-sectional survey

Abstract

Objective

To investigate the patient safety culture regarding intravenous therapy in parts of tertiary hospitals in Guangzhou, China.

Methods

A cross-sectional survey was conducted. A total of 333 medical staffs members from eight hospitals in Guangzhou were included in our study using convenience sampling. An evaluation about the patient safety culture regarding intravenous therapy was conducted.

Results

The summarized results show that the total and level one items’ scores are greater than 4.3 points (the full mark is 5 points). The lowest scoring of the five level one items is for the hospital’s security resources (4.53±0.526), and the highest is for the hospital’s safety management commitment (4.65±0.445). Among the 25 secondary entries, the four lowest-scoring entries are “doctors who can master the knowledge of drug efficacy and adverse reactions” (4.44±0.622), “doctors who can master the knowledge of the choice of medicine” (4.45±0.621), “a guarantee of sufficient human resources” (4.46±0.647), and “doctors who can master the knowledge related to the observation and complications with the treatment of intravenous therapy operation” (4.435±0.634).

Conclusions

The patient safety culture regarding intravenous treatment in parts of tertiary hospitals in Guangzhou is promising, but there are still shortcomings, including the need to increase relevant resources, such as equipment facilities, training resources, and especially human input.

Open access
Percutaneous vertebroplasty versus percutaneous kyphoplasty for the treatment of delayed post-traumatic vertebral body collapse (Kümmell’s disease) in Chinese patients: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract

Objective

To compare the clinical efficacy between percutaneous vertebroplasty (PVP) and percutaneous kyphoplasty (PKP) in the treatment of Kümmell’s disease in Chinese patients.

Methods

The studies using randomized controlled trials to compare clinical efficacy between PVP and PKP in the treatment of Kümmell’s disease in Chinese patients were retrieved from Embase, Pubmed, Central, Cinahl, PQDT, CNKI, CQVIP, Wanfang Data, and CBM (from September 2008 to September 2018). Keywords for both Chinese and English search were: percutaneous vertebroplasty, PVP, percutaneous kyphoplasty, PKP, and Kümmell’s disease. A total of 132 articles were retrieved based on the search strategy through online database searching and manual searching. Finally, one foreign report and seven Chinese reports were included. After extracting the data, statistical software Review Manager 5.3 was used for data analysis.

Results

Through comparison, Cobb angle (95% CI [0.54, 4.42), P = 0.01] and Oswestry Dysfunction Index (ODI) (95% CI [0.21, 2.15], P= 0.02) of PKP group was smaller than that of PVP group. Postoperative anterior vertebral body height of the PKP group was better than PVP group (95% CI [−1.27, −0.66], P < 0.001]. However, the PVP group had shorter operation time than PKP group (95% CI [−13.48, −7.43), P = 0.001]. In the other outcome measures, including Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score (95% CI [−0.04, 0.27), P = 0.15), cement volume (95% CI [−0.82, 0.32], P = 0.39) and cement leakage (95% CI [0.90, 2.76], P = 0.11), there was no significant differences between the two procedures.

Conclusions

At this stage, there is sufficient evidence to support that PKP is better than PVP in the treatment of Kümmell’s disease in Chinese patients. Although PVP surgery requires much less operation time, PKP has better postoperative radiological results and lower ODI. Moreover, both of them had similar clinical results (e.g., analgesic effects, cement dosage, and leakage rate). Further evidence is dependent on the emergence of randomized controlled trials with higher quality and larger sample sizes in the future.

Open access
Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of anti-infective agents during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration in critically ill patients: Lessons learned from an ancillary study of the IVOIRE trial

Abstract

Background

Hemofiltration rate, changes in blood and ultrafiltration flow, and discrepancies between the prescribed and administered doses strongly influence pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of antimicrobial agents during continuous veno-venous hemofiltration (CVVH) in critically ill patients.

Methods

Ancillary data were from the prospective multicenter IVOIRE (hIgh VOlume in Intensive caRE) study. High volume (HV, 70 mL/kg/h) was at random compared with standard volume (SV, 35 mL/kg/h) CVVH in septic shock patients with acute kidney injury (AKI). PK/PD parameters for all antimicrobial agents used in each patient were studied during five days.

Results

Antimicrobial treatment met efficacy targets for both percentage of time above the minimal inhibitory concentration and inhibitory quotient. A significant correlation was observed between the ultrafiltration flow and total systemic clearance (Spearman test: P < 0.005) and between CVVH clearance and drug elimination half-life (Spearman test: P < 0.005). All agents were easily filtered. Mean sieving coefficient ranged from 38.7% to 96.7%. Mean elimination half-life of all agents was significantly shorter during HV-CVVH (from 1.29 to 28.54 h) than during SV-CVVH (from 1.51 to 33.85 h) (P < 0.05).

Conclusions

This study confirms that CVVH influences the PK/PD behavior of most antimicrobial agents. Antimicrobial elimination was directly correlated with convection rate. Current antimicrobial dose recommendations will expose patients to underdosing and increase the risk for treatment failure and development of resistance. Dose recommendations are proposed for some major antibiotic and antifungal treatments in patients receiving at least 25 mL/kg/h CVVH.

Open access
References
Relationship between self-directed learning readiness, learning attitude, and self-efficacy of nursing undergraduates

Abstract

Objective

The purposes of this study were to analyze the influencing factors of self-directed learning readiness (SDLR) of nursing undergraduates and explore the impacts of learning attitude and self-efficacy on nursing undergraduates.

Methods

A total of 500 nursing undergraduates were investigated in Tianjin, with the Chinese version of SDLR scale, learning attitude questionnaire of nursing college students, academic self-efficacy scale, and the general information questionnaire.

Result

The score of SDLR was 149.99±15.73. Multiple stepwise regressions indicated that academic self-efficacy, learning attitude, attitudes to major of nursing, and level of learning difficulties were major influential factors and explained 48.1% of the variance in SDLR of nursing interns.

Conclusions

The score of SDLR of nursing undergraduates is not promising. It is imperative to correct students’ learning attitude, improve self-efficacy, and adopt appropriate teaching model to improve SDLR.

Open access
Research progress in acute hypertensive renal injury by “in vivo cryotechnique”

Abstract

Arterial hypertension has a large prevalence in the general population and as a major hypertensive target organ, the involvement of kidney is usually hard to avoid and gradually develops into chronic kidney disease (CKD). Acute hypertension is defined as a blood pressure greater than 180/120, also known as hypertensive emergency (HE). In acute severe hypertension, the pathophysiology damage to the kidney tends to worsen on the basis of chronic damage, and accounts for more significant mortality. However, the mechanisms of renal injury induced by acute hypertension remain unclear. This review summarizes the clinical and histopathological features of hypertensive renal injury by using “in vivo cyrotechnique” and focusses on the interplay of distinct systemic signaling pathways, which drive glomerular podocyte injury. A thorough understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of kidney damage and repair in hypertension will provide significant insight into the development of new research methods and therapeutic strategies for global CKD progression.

Open access
The role of calprotectin in rheumatoid arthritis

Abstract

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory autoimmune disease characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration, high levels of cytokines, and erosion of cartilage and bone in joints. Calprotectin (CLP), as a recently described member of S100 family proteins, is a heterodimeric complex of S100A8 and S100A9. Currently, plenty of studies have indicated significantly increased serum and synovial fluid levels of CLP in patients with RA. It was reported that CLP was related to cell differentiation, migration, apoptosis, and production of pro-inflammatory factors in RA. In addition, there are the positive relationships between serum, synovial CLP and traditional acute phase reactants, disease activity, ultrasound and radiographic progression of joints, and treatment response of RA. In this review, we mainly discuss the role of CLP in the pathogenesis of RA as well as its potential to estimate clinical disease progression of RA patients.

Open access
The role of endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic resection for gastric glomus: A case series and literature review

Abstract

Background and Objectives

Preoperative diagnosis of gastric glomus tumor is very difficult, and there are few reports regarding the endoscopic treatment of glomus tumor of the stomach. Our aim is to provide a retrospective assessment of the imaging features of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and treatment of choice of gastric glomus tumor.

Methods

A database of all patients with gastric glomus tumor who was treated at Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University between March 2011 and March 2017 was retrospectively analyzed. The EUS characteristics and patients’ clinical data as well as their treatment were reviewed. At the same time, we compared EUS characteristics of gastric glomus tumor with that of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GISTs), leiomyomas, schwannomas, and ectopic pancreas.

Results

Eleven patients (3 male and 8 female patients) were included in the present study. The patients’ age ranged from 37 to 62 years (mean age, 50.1 years). Ten patients received EUS examination. Eight lesions were presented with mild-hyperechoic round or oval mass; one lesion was mild-hyperechoic oval mass with hypoechoic spots; one lesion was hypoechoic oval mass. One patient received endoscopic full-thickness resection; 3 patients were treated by endoscopic submucosal dissection; and laparoscopic resection was performed for 7 patients.

Conclusions

Gastric glomus has typical EUS features to differentiate from other submucosal tumors. Compared with surgery, endoscopic resection is also a safe and effective treatment of choice for gastric glomus tumor.

Open access