An increasing interest in organically grown vegetables has led to an increasing demand to select cultivars meeting the requirements of the production system. This two-year field study was undertaken to assess the effects of organic and conventional nutrient regimes on onion (Allium cepa L.) yield and several yield contributing characters, as well as to identify the traits that could be important when selecting genotypes attended for different production systems. The trial involved five commercially grown onion cultivars and four nutrient regimes: bacterial fertilizer, fully decomposed farmyard manure, without fertilization (organic) and NPK fertilization (conventional). Onion yield, bulb weight, number of bulbs plot−1, number of days from sowing to emergence, vegetation period, plant height, neck diameter, neck length, bulb diameter, bulb height and bulb index have been analyzed. Significant differences concerning all analyzed traits have been found among the cultivars, treatments and years, with significant corresponding interactions. The obtained results imply the specific adaptation to the particular treatments and weather conditions and therefore the possibility to select onion cultivars performing well in organic environments. Path coefficient analysis revealed positive direct effects of bulb weight and number of bulbs plot−1 on yield, as well as negative direct effects of plant height and number of days from sowing to emergence; therefore, those traits should be considered when selecting genotypes attended for different production systems. Other traits affected yield indirectly, mostly positively via bulb weight.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze the floristic composition, abundance, biological spectrum and ecological effects of Futoški Park trees and shrubs on the basis of bioindicators. The field research was conducted in Futoški Park, which is one of the oldest and largest parks in the City of Novi Sad, covering an area of 81,306 m2. Upon determining the floristic composition of Futoški Park and the protection zone around the Park hotel, a total of 121 genotypes were recorded, out of which 34 species and lower taxa belong to the Gymnosperm phylum (Pinophyta) and 87 species and lower taxa belong to the Angiosperm phylum (Magnoliophyta). A total of 5,228 representatives of dendroflora were found. The biological range of trees and shrubs in the study area mostly includes deciduous nanophanerophytes (34.98%) and evergreen nanophanerophytes (33.72%), whereas the remainder includes evergreen phanerophytes (16.35%) and the least prevalent deciduous phanerophytes (14.94%). The analysis of ecological indices shows that the greatest number of species meet the environmental requirements, and are successfully acclimated to the climatic and soil conditions. On the basis of the overall vitality and ornamental features of the dendroflora analyzed, it can be argued that Futoški Park is a unique ecological and environmental entity in the urban structure of the city.
In vitro shoot tips of the blackberry cultivar ‘Čačanska Bestrna’ were cryopreserved using the droplet vitrification technique. Upon loading (30 min) in a solution of 1.9 M glycerol and 0.5 M sucrose, the explants were dehydrated for 40 min on ice with the PVS A3 vitrification solution (glycerol 37.5%, dimethyl sulfoxide 15%, ethylene glycol 15% and sucrose 22.5%) and for 40 min at room temperature with the PVS3 solution (glycerol 50% and sucrose 50%). They were subsequently frozen in individual microdroplets of vitrification solution, by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen (LN), and kept therein for 2, 4, 8 and 24 h. The explant rewarming was performed in an unloading solution (0.8 M sucrose) for 30 min at room temperature. The duration of LN exposure did not exert significant effects on the survival and regrowth of explants in both types of vitrification solutions. The survival and regrowth of cryopreserved shoot tips dehydrated with PVS3 solution ranged between 90–95% and 80–90%, respectively. However, dehydration with PVS A3 resulted in a lower survival rate (80–90%) and a considerably lower regrowth rate (55–65%) of explants. Monitoring the shoots regenerated in the in vitro culture revealed their normal capacity for multiplication and rooting in comparison with the controls, which fully confirms the purpose of cryopreservation in the long-term preservation of plant material.
The aim of this study was to examine the effect of thermal conditioning on the embryonic mortality, on the time of embryonic mortality, as well as to examine the effect of this temperature regime on hatching and on thyroid gland hormone levels. 400 fertile eggs, randomly divided into two groups with two repetitions, were used in this research. The control group was exposed to the standard temperature (37.8°C) through the whole embryonic development. The second group was incubated under the standard conditions as the control group, up to 15th day of embryonic development. During 16th, 17th and 18th day of embryonic development, the incubation temperature was increased to 39°C for 3 hours. From 19th day up to the end of the incubation period the conditions of incubation were identical to those of the control group. Results of this study show that the applied treatment leads to an increase of concentration of free T3 hormone on the day 19 of embryonic development, as opposed to a decrease of free T4 hormone in the embryo’s blood compared to the control group. The percentage of hatchability was 82.2% in the control group and 83.3% in the second group. The result shows that this way of thermal manipulation did not affect the embryonic mortality, which was 9.5% in the control group and 8.9% in the experimental group. It can be concluded that in this manner thermal conditioning may manifest the positive effect on the thyroid gland hormone levels without increasing embryonic mortality or disturbing the hatching percentage.
The purpose of this paper is to analyze relations between seed quality characteristics and the influence of contaminated urban areas on seed quality of sycamore maple trees in different locations across Novi Sad (Serbia). This research analyzed seed germination of 29 adult trees of sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) and its red leaf variety (Acer pseudoplatanus ‘atropurpureum’ Späth.). Our results indicate a medium strong positive correlation between seed weight and viable seed. Sycamore maple trees from the same urban typology do not have significant influence on seed quality characteristics, while different urban typology has such influence. These results explain the negative influence of urban areas on seed quality characteristics. For selection of high value trees in urbanized and contaminated areas, seed quality can be the indicator of adaptability to stress related conditions.
The goal of this research is to determine the effects of different levels of water deficit (I100: full irrigation, I65: 35% deficit, I40: 60% deficit and I0: no irrigation) on yield and chemical composition of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] grown in Srem region of Serbia. Water deficit significantly affected the yield and chemical composition of soybean seeds. The lowest (1.63 t/ha) and the highest (3.21 t/ha) seed yields were obtained from I0 and I65 treatments, respectively. Furthermore, the highest protein (1092 kg/ha) and oil (563 kg/ha) yields were observed in I65 treatment. Lower and higher irrigation levels from I65 decreased the protein and oil yields. Our data indicated that irrigation generally increased K, P, Mg, Mn, Cu, Zn and B concentrations and decreased Ca and Fe concentrations in soybean seed. It was clearly observed that full-watered treatment (I100) provided no potential benefit in terms of soybean yield and chemical composition. For higher economic yield and good nutritional quality, water-saving treatment I65 could be suitable in soybean management in Srem region of Serbia as in other regions with similar soil and climate conditions.
The purpose of this paper is to analyse the introduction of certain plant species such as pot marigolds (Calendula officinalis L.) into neglected and predominantly urban spaces in the Republic of Serbia. The research was based on the results obtained in a two-year experiment conducted in the vicinity of the Novi Sad-Backa Palanka road. The primary objective of the experiment was to examine the behaviour of pot marigolds in poor-quality and neglected soils, with minimum cultural practices, in order to obtain novel plants in such adverse environments, which could be subsequently marketed in Serbia. The experiment commenced in 2014 by planting pot marigolds in plots previously cleared of weeds by mechanical tilling. In the spring of 2015, pot marigold seedlings, i.e. the first generation of plants obtained from the plots created in 2014, were planted in weed-free plots. The measurements were performed in three replicates from 10 October to 10 December 2015 in order to determine the number of volunteer plants, which could be further improved in nursery production and subsequently marketed in Serbia. The results obtained indubitably indicate that this and prospective studies exert positive ecological, agricultural and economic effects on a vast range of potential users.
The purpose of this study is to determine the morphometric characterization of Dubska Pramenka sheep and to establish a relationship between the most important body measurements of ewes and rams within the strain. The Dubska Pramenka is one of the biggest strains within the Pramenka breed. The wither heights of ewes and rams were 73.37 cm and 79.92 cm respectively, whereas the body lengths were 74.66 cm (ewes) and 80.42 cm (rams), and the rump heights were 73.72 cm (female) and 80.16 cm (male). Based on the data presented, it is evident that the Dubska Pramenka sheep has almost a square body shape with the rump height slightly greater than the wither height. The chest depth and shoulder width of ewes were 34.50 cm and 22.72 cm respectively, whereas those of males were 36.17 cm and 23.75 cm. In both sheep genders, the hip width (ewes 21.92 cm, rams 22.91 cm) was lower than the shoulder width. The chest and shin perimeters of females were 98.72 cm and 9.31 cm respectively, whereas those of males were 103.25 cm and 10.91 cm. The most significant correlation and statistical significance were recorded in relation to the measured wither and rump heights (r = 0.856 for females, r = 0.856 for males) due to their constant increase during the growth and development of sheep. Conversely, the measurements of rump heights and chest perimeters did not indicate any correlation (r = −0.028 for ewes, r = 0.004 for rams).
Owing to the fact that the EU is committed to reducing greenhouse gas emissions by 20% below 1990 levels by 2020, and having in mind their high dependence on import of oil and oil derivatives, which, in turn, causes instability of power supply, increasing attention is being paid to renewable energy sources. Given the ongoing pre-accession process of the Republic of Serbia in relation to the EU, in order to determine the capacity of the country to increase the share of energy use from renewable sources, in this paper clustering of selected regions in the EU-28 has been carried out, after which a comparative analysis of regions was performed in terms of potential of agricultural biomass, for the purpose of generating energy. The aim of this study is to determine the level of the region of Vojvodina in relation to ten selected EU regions, based on parameters that affect the potential for using renewable energy sources, primarily residues from agriculture. By applying the K-means method, Borda count method and comparative analysis, and based on empirical data, results show that the region of Vojvodina takes a significant fifth place. Its share of agricultural land ranks it as the first, whereas production of cereals and the total number of farms larger than 100 ha rank it as the second. It could be concluded that Vojvodina is an agricultural region with large quantities of plant remains, primarily those left over from harvest, which represents a significant potential for energy generation from agricultural biomass.
This experiment evaluated the effect of soil management systems in a black currant planting on the generative potential (number of flowers per inflorescence, number of berries per cluster and yield per bush), physical attributes of the cluster and fruit (berry weight and cluster weight) and chemical properties of the fruit (soluble solids content, total sugars, titratable acidity, total anthocyanins, total phenolic content and vitamin C) of black currant cultivars. Three soil management systems were used: treatment I – bare fallow i.e. continuous tillage; treatment II – sawdust mulch, and treatment III – black polyethylene foil mulch. Four black currant cultivars were included - ‘Ben Lomond’, ‘Titania’, ‘Čačanska crna’ and ‘Tiben’. The soil management systems had a significant effect on the tested parameters. The cultivars also showed highly significant differences. Soil management system x cultivar interactions were observed for generative potential, and physical properties of the cluster and fruit, but not for fruit chemical traits, except in the soluble solids content.