Objective. We investigated the effects of magnesium supplementation on glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, oxidative stress as well as the concentration of insulin receptor and glucose transporter-4 in streptozotocin-nicotinamide induced type-2 diabetic (T2D) rats. Methods. Rats were divided into four groups designated as: 1) control (CTR); 2) diabetic untreated (DU); 3) diabetic treated with 1 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg1-D); and 4) diabetic treated with 2 mg of Mg/kg diet (Mg2-D). T2D was induced with a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of freshly prepared streptozotocin (55 mg/kg) aft er an initial i.p. injection of nicotinamide (120 mg/kg). Glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, malondialdehyde (MAD) and glutathione content, insulin receptors (INSR) and glucose transporter-4 (GLUT4), fasting insulin and glucose levels were measured, and insulin resistance index was calculated using the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR). Results. Magnesium supplementation improved glucose tolerance and lowered blood glucose levels almost to the normal range. We also recorded a noticeable increase in insulin sensitivity in Mg-D groups when compared with DU rats. Lipid perturbations associated T2D were significantly attenuated by magnesium supplementation. Fasting glucose level was comparable to control values in the Mg-D groups while the HOMA-IR index was significantly lower compared with the DU rats. Magnesium reduced MDA but increased glutathione concentrations compared with DU group. Moreover, INSR and GLUT4 levels were elevated following magnesium supplementation in T2D rats. Conclusion. These findings demonstrate that magnesium may mediate effective metabolic control by stimulating the antioxidant defense, and increased levels of INSR and GLUT4 in diabetic rats.
Objectives. The aim of this study was to present up to date information concerning the diagnosis and treatment of primary aldosteronism (PA). PA is the most common cause of endocrine hypertension. It has been reported up to 24% of selective referred hypertensive patients. Methods. We did a search in Pub-Med and Google Scholar using the terms: PA, hyperaldosteronism, idiopathic adrenal hyperplasia, diagnosis of PA, mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, adrenalectomy, and surgery. We also did cross-referencing search with the above terms. We had divided our study into five sections: Introduction, Diagnosis, Genetics, Treatment, and Conclusions. We present our results in a question and answer fashion in order to make reading more interesting. Results. PA should be searched in all high-risk populations. The gold standard for diagnosis PA is the plasma aldosterone/plasma renin ratio (ARR). If this test is positive, then we proceed with one of the four confirmatory tests. If positive, then we proceed with a localizing technique like adrenal vein sampling (AVS) and CT scan. If the lesion is unilateral, after proper preoperative preparation, we proceed, in adrenalectomy. If the lesion is bilateral or the patient refuses or is not fit for surgery, we treat them with mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, usually spironolactone. Conclusions. Primary aldosteronism is the most common and a treatable case of secondary hypertension. Only patients with unilateral adrenal diseases are eligible for surgery, while patients with bilateral and non-surgically correctable PA are usually treated by mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist (MRA). Thus, the distinction between unilateral and bilateral aldosterone hypersecretion is crucial.
Cerebral germinoma is rare. Although the imaging of the germinoma is very evocative, it’s very polymorphic clinical expression is at the origin of misguided diagnosis, as illustrated in our case. We report the case of a 10-year-old girl with diabetes insipidus evolving for 12 months associated with a decrease in visual acuity. Brain MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) revealed a tumor process in the suprasellar region. The stereotaxic biopsy of the tumor confirmed the diagnosis of the hypothalamic germinoma, which allowed the patient to be treated by radiotherapy and chemotherapy. The incidence of cerebral germinoma, its clinical (principally diabetes insipidus) and radiological features as well as therapeutic strategies are discussed hereby.
Objective. Curcuma longa (C. longa) was used in some countries such as China and India for various medicinal purposes. Curcumin, the active component of C. longa, is commonly used as a coloring agent in foods, drugs, and cosmetics. C. longa and curcumin have been known to act as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-mutagen, and anti-carcinogenic agents. Th e attempt of the present review was to give an effort on a detailed literature survey concentrated on the protective effects of C. longa and curcumin on the reproductive organs activity. Methods. The databases such as, PubMed, Web of Science, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Iran- Medex, were considered. The search terms were “testis” or “ovary” and “Curcuma longa”, “curcumin”, “antioxidant effect”, “anti-inflammatory effect” and “anti-cancer effect”. Results. C. longa and curcumin inhibited the production of the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and increased the caspases (3, 8 and 9) activities in HL-60 prostate cancer. Furthermore, C. longa and curcumin suppressed the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phosphorylated signal transducers and activators of the transcription 3 (STAT) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) in ovarian cancer cell line. Conclusion. C. longa and curcumin might decrease the risk of cancer and other malignant diseases in the reproductive system. C. longa and curcumin have a protective effect on the reproductive organs activity such as, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and antioxidant effects in normal cells but showed pro-apoptotic effects in the malignant cells. Therefore, different effects of C. longa and curcumin are dependent on the doses and the type of cells used in various models studied.
Objectives. Hypophysitis is a heterogeneous inflammatory disease of pituitary gland. As it causes headache and visual defects, it mimics sellar tumors in clinical and radiological aspects. It may occur due to primary or secondary causes. Tuberculosis is one of the rare secondary causes of the hypophysitis. Subject and Results. A 30-year-old male patient presented with fatigue and headache. Panhypopituitarism was considered due to the results and the diagnostic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed sagittal section diamater of pituitary gland higher than normal. Biopsy of the pituitary gland was concordant with the granulomatous hypophysitis. Other possible diagnosis was excluded. Conclusion. The tubercular hypophysitis, as a result of performed tests, is discussed hereby, in the case report.
Objectives. Body fat content, fat distribution, and adiponectin level are important variables in the development of obesity related complications. Anthropometric indices may provide an economic and faster method in measuring the risk for complications through their predictive effect of fat distribution and adiponectin concentration. We aimed to determine, which of the waist circumference (WC), waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), and body mass index (BMI) may be the best predictor for the total fat percentage (WF), visceral fat level (VF), and subcutaneous whole-body fat (SCWBF). We aimed also to investigate the potential use of the anthropometric measures and fat distribution as predictors for the salivary adiponectin level in the healthy adult males. Subjects. A total of 88 adult males aged between 18−25 years with a wide range of BMI were studied. Anthropometric indices were measured using standardized methods and salivary adiponectin level was assessed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results. In path analysis of the Structural Equation Model (SEM) using IBM@SPSS AMOS, version22, BMI and WC, but not WHR, were strong predictors for WF and SCWBF (p<0.05). BMI but not WC was a strong predictor for VF (p<0.001). WF was strong predictor for SCWBF (p<0.001), but not for VF. BMI, WC, WHR, WF, VF, and SCWBF were poor predictors of the salivary adiponectin level. Conclusion. BMI is the best predictor for the total body fat and fat distribution. However, WHR seems to be of a little value and the salivary adiponectin level independent of BMI and body fat in healthy adult Malay males.
Objective. Testosterone depletion induces increased germ cell apoptosis in testes. However, limited studies exist on genes that regulate the germ cell apoptosis. Granzymes (GZM) are serine proteases that induce apoptosis in various tissues. Multiple granzymes, including GZMA, GZMB and GZMN, are present in testes. Th us, we investigated which granzyme may be testosterone responsive and possibly may have a role in germ cell apoptosis aft er testosterone depletion. Methods. Ethylene dimethane sulfonate (EDS), a toxicant that selectively ablates the Leydig cells, was injected into rats to withdraw the testosterone. The testosterone depletion effects after 7 days post-EDS were verified by replacing the testosterone exogenously into EDS-treated rats. Serum or testicular testosterone was measured by radioimmunoassay. Using qPCR, mRNAs of granzyme variants in testes were quantified. The germ cell apoptosis was identified by TUNEL assay and the localization of GZMK was by immunohistochemistry. Results. EDS treatment eliminated the Leydig cells and depleted serum and testicular testosterone. At 7 days post-EDS, testis weights were reduced 18% with increased germ cell apoptosis plus elevation GZMK expression. GZMK was not associated with TUNEL-positive cells, but was localized to stripped cytoplasm of spermatids. In addition, apoptotic round spermatids were observed in the caput epididymis. Conclusions. GZMK expression in testes is testosterone dependent. GZMK is located adjacent to germ cells in seminiferous tubules and the presence of apoptotic round spermatids in the epididymis suggest its role in the degradation of microtubules in ectoplasmic specializations. Thus, overexpression of GZMK may indirectly regulate germ cell apoptosis by premature release of round spermatids from seminiferous tubule lumen.
Objectives. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin E on the oxidative stress parameters and antioxidant defense enzymes in the heart and aorta of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PTU)-induced hypothyroid rats. Methods. The animals were divided into 4 experimental groups: Group 1 (Euthyroid) received tap water, Group 2 (Hypothyroid) received 0.05 % of PTU in dissolved in their drinking water, Group 3 (PTU+Vit E) hypothyroid rats treated with vitamin E, and Group 4 (Euthyroid+Vit E). Vitamin E was injected daily (20 mg/kg) to groups 3 and 4 via daily gavage for 6 weeks. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, total thiol levels, and the activities of Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were evaluated in the aortic and cardiac tissues. Results. A significant decrease of thyroxine (T4) serum levels confirmed hypothyroidism in rats, which received PTU. The MDA level increased and total thiol level decreased in the hypothyroid group compared to control group (p<0.001). Th e activities of SOD and CAT significantly decreased in the hypothyroid rats in comparison to the control. Vitamin E treatment resulted in increased levels of total thiol, SOD, and CAT within aortic and cardiac tissues and decreased levels of MDA in comparison with the hypothyroid group (p<0.01−p<0.001). Conclusions. PTU-induced hypothyroidism resulted in oxidative stress. Chronic administration of vitamin E to hypothyroid rats decreased the oxidative stress markers in the aortic and cardiac tissues.
The cardiovascular control involves a bidirectional functional connection between the brain and heart. We hypothesize that this connection could be extended to other organs using endocrine and autonomic nervous systems (ANS) as communication pathways. This implies a neuroendocrine interaction controlling particularly the cardiovascular function where the enzymatic cascade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays an essential role. It acts not only through its classic endocrine connection but also the ANS. In addition, the brain is functionally, anatomically, and neurochemically asymmetric. Moreover, this asymmetry goes even beyond the brain and it includes both sides of the peripheral nervous and neuroendocrine systems. We revised the available information and analyze the asymmetrical neuroendocrine bidirectional interaction for the cardiovascular control. Negative and positive correlations involving the RAS have been observed between brain, heart, kidney, gut, and plasma in physiologic and pathologic conditions. The central role of the peptides and enzymes of the RAS within this neurovisceral communication, as well as the importance of the asymmetrical distribution of the various RAS components in the pathologies involving this connection, are particularly discussed. In conclusion, there are numerous evidences supporting the existence of a neurovisceral connection with multiorgan involvement that controls, among others, the cardiovascular function. This connection is asymmetrically organized.
Objective. The aim of this study was to assess whether microRNA-146a and its adapter proteins TNF receptor associated factor6 (TRAF6) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase-1 (IRAK1) may be changed in the kidney of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, following regular moderate exercise.
Methods. Forty adult male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into four groups (n=10), including sedentary control (SC), sedentary diabetic (SD), healthy sixty-day exercise (H60E), and diabetic sixty-day exercise (D60E) groups. Diabetes was induced by an intraperitoneal injection of 60 mg/kg streptozotocin. After 48 h, blood glucose levels >250 mg/dl was included to diabetic rats. After 2 days of diabetes induction, the exercise protocol began. Animals were exposed to 5 days of consecutive treadmill exercise for 60 min/day with the 22 m/min speed for 60 days. The kidneys of the rats were removed and microRNA was extracted from them using the miRCURYTM RNA isolation kit.
Results. In diabetic rats, statistical analysis revealed a significant decrease in miR-146a expression, non-significant decrease in IRAK1 mRNA expression, and non-significant increase in TRAF6 and NF-kB mRNA expression compared to the SC group. Exercise led to a non-significant increase in the expression of miR-146a and NF-kB mRNA in the kidneys of the diabetic group as compared to the SD group, significant increase in TRAF6 and IRAK1 mRNA expression compared to the H60E group, and significant increase in TRAF6 mRNA expression compared to the SD group.
Conclusion. The present data indicate that exercise might be able to help in the prevention in the diabetic nephropathy development.