Cell walls represent the first barrier that can prevent the entrance of toxic heavy metals into plants. The composition and the flexibility of the cell wall are regulated by different enzymes. The ß-1,3-glucanases control the degradation of the polysaccharide callose as a flexible regulation mechanism of cell wall permeability and/or its ability to bind metals under stress conditions. The profile and activity of ß-1,3-glucanases in the presence of heavy metals, however, has rarely been studied. Here we studied these enzymes in four soybean varieties (Glycine max) grown in the presence of cadmium ions. These analyses revealed three acidic and one basic enzyme isoforms in each soybean variety, but only two of the acidic isoforms in the variety Moravians were substantially responsive to the presence of Cd2+. Since the responses of certain glucanases were detected mainly in the varieties sensitive to metal and accumulating high amounts of metals, we assume their role in the defense rather than strategic metal sequestration.
The (1,3)-β-D-glucan also referred to as callose is a main component of cell walls of higher plants. Many physiological processes are associated with the changes in callose deposition. Callose is synthesised by the callose synthase complex while its degradation is regulated by the hydrolytic enzymes β-1,3-glucanases. The latter one specifically degrade (1,3)-β-D-glucans. This work is aimed to study β-1,3-glucanase activities in the leaves of plants at two leaf stage in two diploids (Agilops tauschii, Triticum monococcum L.), four tetraploids (Ae. cylindrica, Ae. triuncialis, T. araraticum, T. dicoccum) and two hexaploids (T. aestivum L, T. spelta L.). The leaves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative β-1,3-glucanase activity assays. Our results showed that the total β-1,3-glucanase activities were variable and genotype dependent. No significant correlation between β-1,3-glucanase activities and ploidy level was observed. The gel activity assays revealed a single fraction of ~52 kDa Glu1 that was found in all genotypes. The Glu1 fraction corresponds to a single or two acidic Glu isoforms in dependence on genotype. However, none of the acidic Glu fractions can be assigned as a specific for di-, tetra- or hexaploid genotypes. A single basic GluF isoform was detected and found as present in all genotypes.
Plants have evolved to live in environments where they are often exposed to different stress factors. Being sessile, they have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to detect precisely environmental changes and respond to complex conditions, minimizing damage while conserving valuable resources for growth and reproduction. The cell wall polysaccharide β-D-glucan observed in some species of Poales can determine responses to various environmental factors in specific plant developmental stages. It is located in the outer epidermal layer, at the place of stress attack and therefore its metabolism could relate to response of plant to environmental factors within moderate, physiological range. Putative protective role of β-D-glucan during heat stress was indicated through naked oats with higher content of β-D-glucan. It appeared that oats with higher β-D-glucan content are better adapted to stress conditions. The presented article discusses the β-D-glucan as a possible protective mechanism in oat during (heat) stress conditions.
AHyaluronic acid (HA) is part of the extracellular matrix of connective, epithelial and neural tissues, as well as the synovial fluid, skin, and cartilage. It is composed of repeating disaccharide units of D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl glucosamine. Hyaluronic acid is used in abdominal surgery, ophthalmology, dermatology, rhinology; it is usable for the osteoarthritis treatment. The membranes of eggshell are a natural source of hyaluronic acid, collagen, glycosaminoglycan and collagenous proteins. In paper, we tested the possibility of extraction hyaluronic acid from the eggshell membranes by enzymatic hydrolysis. We identified optimal conditions of hydrolysis with trypsin at reaction temperature of 37 °C and pH 8; with pepsin at 40 °C and pH 3, as well as with papain at 60 °C and pH 7.5. The content of hyaluronic acid in samples was determined spectrophotometrically using the carbazole method. The experimental results showed a yield of ~ 4 -4.5 % hyaluronic acid per 1 g of dry eggshell membranes.
The Anopheles gambiae is a highly anthropophilic mosquito which is the leading vector for malaria. This disease has affected more than 500 million people worldwide. The Anopheles gambiae targets its hosts through the odors of the human skin and sweat where odorant molecules radiate. These odors elicit specific responses from the insect through the odorant – binding proteins (OBP). Recently, a specific type of OBP has been characterized which is known as the Anopheles gambiae odorant – binding protein 20 (AgamOBP20). This OBP is highly expressed in the female mosquito antennae during the peak of its host – seeking behavior and thus may play a role in olfactory perception. The binding site of the AgamOBP20 is composed primarily of hydrophobic residues wherein the importance of each residue is herein analysed to further understand the properties of AgamOBP20. This was carried out through computer – aided site – directed mutagenesis coupled with homology modelling and docking simulations wherein each residue in the binding site was changed to alanine and serine. Probable key amino acid residues were identified as LEU106, LEU107, and MET53 which are hypothesized to play a significant role in the protein – ligand interaction. These residues had the greatest impact in the binding free energy when mutated with alanine and serine. The presented results suggest that steric hindrance and hydrophobic interaction are crucial factors to consider on the manner in which the ligand binds with AgamOBP20. The molecular features and parameters obtained may be utilized for the development of new pesticides and repellents that are able to block the function of AgamOBP20 and may result to the disarray of the host – seeking behavior of the Anopheles gambiae.
Toxicants removal through microorganism’s action is intensely being sought due to economic reasons. The aim of this paper is to isolate a bacterium that is able to reduce molybdenum blue and at the same time can grow on the detergent Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate (SDS). Biochemical analysis resulted in a tentative identification of the bacterium as Enterobacter sp. strain Neni-13. Growth on SDS showed a 100 % removal at 800 mg/L SDS within 12 days. The removal of SDS from media was confirmed through Methylene Blue Active Substances Assay. Molybdenum reduction using sodium molybdate as a substrate was characterized using a microplate assay. The optimum pH and temperature for molybdenum reduction was between 6.0 and 6.5, and at 37 °C, respectively. Glucose was the best electron donor for molybdate reduction. Phosphate and molybdate concentrations of between 2.5 and 5.0 mM and at 15 mM, were optimal for molybdate reduction, respectively. Molybdate reduction was inhibited by the heavy metals mercury, silver, copper and chromium at 2 ppm. The ability of this bacterium to detoxify molybdate and degrade the SDS makes this bacterium an important tool for bioremediation of toxicants in soil.
The aim of this work was to identify the main microbiota in raw cow milk from dairy farm of Slovakia and to describe the selected microorganisms responsible for thermostable protease and lipase production which can affected the quality of dairy products. The main bacterial classes identifying by MALDI-TOF MS were Gammaproteobacteria (62 %), Actinobacteria (19 %) and Bacilli (12 %). The dominant microbial genus of raw cow milk was Pseudomonas. From milk bacteria, the strain Lactococcus lactis and from the family Enterobacteriaceae, namely Enterococcus faecalis, Hafnia alvei, Citrobacter braakii and Raoultella ornithinolytica were observed in raw milk. The spoilage of milk products is caused by thermostable enzymes with lipolytic and proteolytic activity. Qualitative proteolytic and lipolytic activities were performed on skin milk agar and olive oil, respectively. From 16 identified microorganisms, only 8 strains (P. fragii, P. gessardii, P. lundesis, H. alvei, C. braakii, R. ornithinolytica, Kocuria rhizophila and Candida inconspicua) showed protease activity. Quantitative protease and lipase activities were determined by casein and olive oil, respectively. The highest both activities were measured for the genus Pseudomonas. While lipases produced by all isolated microbial species lose enzymatic activity at 77 °C for 30 – 40 min, almost proteases showed comparable activities during whole pasteurization experiment at selected experimental conditions (70 °C, 40 min).
A mononuclear CoII complex, [Co(qu)2Br2], and NiII complex, [Ni(PPh3)2Cl2], (qu = quinoline, PPh3 = triphenylphosphine) have been reinvestigated. Their crystal and molecular structures are reported along with IR and UV-Vis spectra. Magnetism of both complexes has been studied by using the DC SQUID magnetometry. These complexes exhibit a moderate magnetic anisotropy expressed by zero-field splitting parameter D. The D-value is positive for both complexes with D/hc = +5.94 cm−1 and D/hc = +12.76 cm−1, that is also confirmed by ab initio calculations.
The synthesis and characterization of nine new copper(II) complexes [Cu(2-Clnic)2L2] (where 2-Clnic is 2-chloronicotinate anion, L is imidazole – Im, benzimidazole – Bim, furo[3,2-c]pyridine – FP, 2-methylfuro[3,2-c]pyridine – MFP, or benzofuro[3,2-c]pyridine – BFP), [Cu(2-Clnic)2(INA)] (where INA is isonicotinamide), [Cu(2-Clnic)2(4-py)]·H2O (where 4-py is 4-methylpyridine) and [Cu2(2-Clnic)4(IQ)2] (where IQ is isoquinoline) are reported. The characterizations were based on elemental analysis, infrared, electronic and EPR spectra. The dimeric character of [Cu2(2-Clnic)4(IQ)2] is assumed on the EPR spectrum and the other spectral methods. The crystal structure of the [Cu(2-Clnic)2(Bim)2] and [Cu(2-Clnic)2(FP)2] complexes have been determined by X-ray crystal structure analysis. Both complexes exhibit the hexacoordination coordination polyhedra around copper atom that lies in the crystallographic center of symmetry. The distorted tetragonal-bipyramidal (4+2) arrangement is in good agreement with spectral data that have suggested an asymmetric chelate coordination of the carboxylic group.
Thieno[3,2-c]pyridine (thpy) has been prepared in a free form and embodied into the [Ni(thpy)2(H2O)2(ac)2] complex as a ligand. The X-ray structure shows a molecular structure of the complex with Ni−O(ac) = 2.059, Ni−OH2 = 2.078, and Ni−N(thpy) = 2.124 Ǻ. Electronically the complex behaves like a compressed tetragonal bipyramid. The molecular units are linked into a complex system of hydrogen bonds. Two units show a π−π stacking of the aromatic rings (3.8 Ǻ). There are planes of tetragons formed of the nickel atom with the in-plane Ni...Ni separation of 7.74 Ǻ and the inter-plane Ni...Ni contacts at a = 9.65 Ǻ. The effective magnetic moment shows a gradual decrease on cooling from the room temperature and an abrupt drop below 20 K typical for the zero-field splitting of S = 1 systems. Above the room temperature the effective magnetic moment shows anomalies – a decrease and then an increase.