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Subject and purpose of work: The work concerns the reduction of greenhouse gas emission thanks to renewable energy sources (RES) utilized in selected municipalities of the Lubelskie Province. The aim of the study was to assess the consistency between the tasks provided in low-emission economy plans (LEEP) and the strategic documents on RES, especially biomass. The investment priorities of municipalities regarding RES and the impact of these investments on the emission of CO2 have been presented.

Materials and methods: The analysis covered 8 LEEPs and programming documents: EU, national and regional ones concerning RES.

Results: EU and Polish policy contribute to the development of RES, including biomass, under the condition that their negative effect on the environment, resulting especially from biomass burning, is limited. Municipalities intend mainly to use solar energy, yet the technologies of biomass they suggest are not always in line with new trends.

Conclusions: Measures limiting the emission of greenhouse gases, including the use of RES, are provided in the analysed LEEPs. However, some municipalities intend to produce energy from biomass, mainly in the process of combustion. As this is not in line with the latest EU recommendations, such plans should then be verified.


The contribution intends to present a framework as updated as possible on Azerbaijan, a country of which we are hearing more and more but not very well known and known to most, trying to provide an overview of what Azerbaijan is today, paying particular attention to the history of this interesting country in order to understand what it is today and even more what is the path taken for its future development. Therefore, some areas and aspects of the country have been identified, which will be, to follow, argued. Starting from the entirely geographical aspects to the more socio-cultural, then moving on to international relations and geopolitics and finally to the economic aspects.


The article aims to illustrate how Azerbaijan appeared in the eyes of an Italian who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, had the opportunity to visit it during a trip to Constantinople. Between 1841 and 1842, Felice De Vecchi, a wealthy Milanese passionate about painting and travel, embarked on a journey, together with his naturalist friend Gaetano Osculati, to Constantinople and then, through Persia, visited India. He kept a diary of that journey, only recently found in its almost totality, dedicating an entire chapter to Azerbaijan, the “land of fires”. From his account, rich in anthropological and pictorial notations, emerges a very well-defined sketch that does not hide the wonder of those who meet housing situations and customs far from their country of origin. In order not to lose the most emotional component contained in De Vecchi’s writing, the frequent quotations of passages from the diary are presented in the English translation, followed by the original text in nineteenth-century Italian.


The present paper intends to analyse the current urban situation of the city of Baku. Starting from its history and the vicissitudes that have seen the alternating city periods of splendour with gloomy moments, some of the great urban projects realised since the end of the 20th century and which are transforming the appearance of Baku are taken into consideration. Accomplice a new moment of splendour, favoured by the huge proceeds of the oil industry, the city of Baku is, in fact, revolutionising its appearance and its structure to become a new city of global importance, as it happened for Dubai.


This wants to be a contribution for those who want to understand the Bologna process, intergovernmental cooperation of 48 European countries in the field of higher education. The Bologna process guides the collective effort of public authorities, universities, teachers, and students, together with stakeholder associations, employers, quality assurance agencies, international organisations, and institutions, including the European Commission, on how to improve the internationalisation of higher education, a project that is at the base of the modernization of the European educational system and well beyond.


Subject and purpose of work: Urban transport is a key element of the functioning of urban agglomerations around the world. As it is of strategic importance, the needs of its users have to be diagnosed. Due to the fact that students are the most numerous social group using public transport, particular attention should be paid to students as the real creators of the needs of urban transport. The paper aims to diagnose the challenges in urban transport shaped by the process of studentification based on the case study of Toruń.

Materials and methods: The multi-stage research approach was adopted, among others a survey among students. The choice of the research area was determined by the fact that Toruń is one of the largest academic centres in Poland.

Results: Toruń is experiencing the effects of the studentification process in different dimensions, including the spatial and transport facets.

Conclusions: The majority of students use public transport, daily or several times a week. The most preferred means of transport is the tram owing to its relative speed and punctuality.


Subject and purpose of work: This article identifies changes in the economic use of the river valley area of the Krzna, which occurred as a consequence of the regulation of its bed from the Klukówka estuary to the estuary of the Krzna to the Bug.

Materials and methods: The analysis was carried out on the basis of cartographic maps and aerial photographs, as well as statistical analyses for the period 1931-2015.

Results: The study confirmed the changes in the economic use of the valley of the Krzna River for the agricultural exploitation of the area and increasing crop yields. The biggest changes encompassed wetlands and swamps, mainly in favour of grasslands, whose area increased by 566%, to 2475.7 ha.

Conclusions: The regulatory work carried out resulted in an increase in arable land, forests and areas for development, as well as in the reduction of water surface area from 251.94 ha in 1931 to 57.28 ha in 2015.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of the study was to compare the behavior of companies located in the areas of nature value and in their proximity with companies located in urbanized areas in the Lublin Region in terms of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR).

Materials and methods: The study was conducted by means of the diagnostic survey method, using direct interviews.

Results and conclusions: Companies located in valuable natural or close to natural areas tend to undertake ecological and environmental investments (27.68%), care for the common good (54.46%), and treat employees well (54.46%) as compared with the companies located in urban areas (10.72%, 25.89% and 25.89%, respectively). Sensitivity to nature is primarily the result of the company’s direct contact with nature, the recognition of the importance of protecting it, as well as of good treatment of employees, that is it results mainly from the combination of business and personal relationships with employees. Firms located in urban areas are much more likely to support charitable donations (22.33%), which is a result of higher returns by these companies and more frequent requests for financial assistance. Further research in this regard should concern factors that make the entrepreneurs more willing to implement CSRs in their companies.


Subject and purpose of work: The study systematizes concepts and terms related to country branding such as nation branding, state branding, place branding, destination branding, location branding, territory branding, and region branding as well as exploring the similarities and differences among these expressions.

Materials and methods: First of all, the study reviews relevant literature. In this context it also analyzes the most relevant country case study articles with titles that may include country branding or related terms in many forms.

Results: At the end of the study, a summary table systematizing the terminology of the topic is included, which is a novel approach to the subject. The practical significance of the study becomes clear if organizations involved in the development of country brands consider the abovementioned theoretical framework while developing their own strategies.

Conclusions: As a result of the systematization, country branding will be more consciously used in the subchapters of strategic materials discussing how to increase country competitiveness.


Subject and purpose of work: The reason for choosing the subject and undertaking the studies were information gaps regarding the behaviour of young consumers in the area of activities related to enviroment.

Materials and methods: The study employed purposeful sampling with regards to the participants’ field of study (programmes with environmental education content) and the year of education, as well as stratified sampling according to the structure of the population and its division into groups based on specified features. The technique of auditorium questionnaire was used.

Results: The analysis showed that the students are characterised by a high level of ecological awareness and a sense of responsibility for it, and that is they are informed and pragmatic consumers. As involved and ecological consumers, they behave in a pro-ecological way and create desirable patterns of consumer behaviour.

Conclusions: It was found that the students have a sense of responsibility for the surrounding environment. Convinced about their individual influence, they create desirable patterns of proecological behaviour.