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From 2012-2014 we selected fetuses who had an isolated congenital heart defect and restriction of the foramen ovale defined as its diameter of 4 mm or less, shunt across foramen ovale, V max > 70 cm/sec along with a typical harsh sound during fetal ausculation during echocardiography and reversal flow in pulmonary veins, no extracardiac anomalies, singleton pregnancies and delivery > 37 weeks of gestation. It was retrospective analysis of 16 cases: There were 10 non-survivors and 6 survivors The only significant difference between survivors and non-survivors pertained to the fraction of newborns operated on up to 11th day, which was significantly higher among the survivors (5/6 vs. 2/8, p=0.031).


1) In the event of prenatal restriction of the foramen ovale early surgery by day 10 had a statistically better outcome in terms of survival compared to cases that underwent surgery at a later period at our Institute.

2) Prenatal restriction of the foramen ovale was more often related to male gender and in 75% of cases in our series had complicated follow-up: neonatal death or prolonged hospital stay.3) Information from prenatal echocardiography regarding restriction of the foramen ovale should be taken into consideration as valuable information suggesting priority for early cardiac surgery.


Complains about prenatal diagnoses usually touch late diagnosis, missed diagnosis or uncomplete diagnosis. Prenatal diagnose provides usually important information for parents, obstetrician and neonatologist. Successful perinatal care is based on a good cooperation of the perinatal team. This time we present a peculiar situation when improper reading of prenatal diagnosis had caused a lot of troubles for the patient, parents and hospital staff.


Attempts to adapt the classifications of pediatric congenital heart defects (CHD) to prenatal cardiology have been lasting for many years. The paediatric cardiology CHD classifications are mainly based on anatomic details and/or pulmonary blood flow and are not always useful in fetal medicine. Because of these reasons and also many more, adaptation attempts of congenital heart defects of children, from pediatric to prenatal cardiology have not brought desired effects.Clinical course in utero and at delivery can now be predicted, and as a consequence, fetal medicine specialists are being asked to consider the fetus as a patient and the transition to postnatal life is an important part of care. The new prenatal classifications of CHD shows new particular group of CHD, requiring emergent procedure after birth. Thanks to organizing special delivery room with special team of specialist we can much more improve the outcome, especially in severest CHD.


The aim of this study was an analysis of cardiac assessment in the first trimester, their outcomes, and comparison with literature data. Five cases were analysed from the year 2014. The exams were performed between 11-13 + 6 weeks. The analysis confirmed that the detection of CHD in 1 st trimester was possible and was verified by an early fetal echocardiogram. The most common symptoms of abnormal heart images in the early screening assessment were: axis, heart size and color Doppler assessment of the chambers and V sign. The outcome of pregnancies with early detection of fetal heart defects was poor. There was only one surviver


We present a case of a female fetus with large posterior fossa cyst. After detailed diagnosis in referral center revealing normal heart anatomy and no functional abnormalities in cardiovascular system, a trial decompression of the fluid reservoir was suggested to the parents and successfully performed at the 30th week of pregnancy. Neurosurgical treatment was continued in the neonatal period. At the age of 7 months, the child presented normal physical development, and the cranial image of the CNS showed good recovery of the brain.


Most heart defects form between 4 and 6 weeks after fertilization. The detection rate is still growing. Despite significant progress in prenatal diagnosis some cases still go undetected. We present two cases of similar defects: prenatally detected and undetected, both presenting with a normal four chamber view in mid-pregnancy. We compared the follow-up of both neonates along with sustained health and economic consequences. The dynamics of the development of heart defects during prenatal life suggests the legitimacy to perform additional, late echocardiography exams (35-38 weeks of gestation)


Congenital heart defect (CHD) is one of the most common type of fetal malformations. Tissue-Doppler imaging, dynamic threedimensional (4D) echocardiography and fetal cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are advanced modalities for the assessment of cardiac structure and function. MRI can study the cardiac morphology using T2-weighted half-Fourier single-shot turbo spin-echo sequence (HASTE) and steady-state free precession (True FISP) sequences. Also a dynamic study can be performed, through the acquisition of cine-MR sequences with real-time steady-state free precession (SSFP) oriented according to the standard projections used in fetal echocardiographic scanning. If the challenges relating to motion and cardiac gating can be overcome, MRI has the potential to provide high-resolution imaging of the fetal heart.


Background: Inflammatory markers in prenatal ultrasound are a heterogeneous group of images that can evolve during pregnancy, due to regression or exacerbation of infection in pregnant women.

Objective:The assessment if effective rebalancing of the bacterial flora of the vagina can lead to withdrawal of the symptoms of inflammation in ultrasound examination (US).

Methods: A retrospective pilot study, among pregnant woman admitted to the Department of Prenatal Cardiology ICZMP in 2013-2014 in whom ultrasonographic signs of intrauterine infection were present. Electronic database were searched for key words ”infection, placentitis, tricuspid regurgitation, poly/oligohydramnion, IUGR, CRP, antibiotics, vaginal treatment”. The analysis included 238 patients, 30 received antibacterial vaginal treatment, from 27 patients a complete follow-up (control ultrasound after 10-14 days and data on labor) were obtained.

Results: The average age of patients was 29 years. In 22% of patients tricuspid regurgitation was observed and it was the most commonly recognized marker of infection. Regression of infection signs were observed in 21 patients (77.8%) after 2 weeks of vaginal treatment.

2 patients presented with ultrasound image stabilization, in 3 patients worsening of tricuspid regurgitation or cardiac hypertrophy were detected. Polyhydramnios, the second most common parameter (18.51% of patients) resolved after treatment in all studied patients. The delivery took place an average at 39th week of gestation (SD +/- 1.93).

Conclusions: Effective anti-inflammatory vaginal treatment improved ultrasound images in 21 out of 27 fetuses. These preliminary observations suggesting a beneficial role of the vaginal treatment on inflammatory markers in pregnancy ultrasound require further investigation.


The rare anomalies diagnosed in prenatal ultrasonographic examination include Pierre-Robin sequence. The aim of the report was to demonstrate a well-documented case of Pierre-Robin sequence detected by ultrasonography at the 24th week of gestation, present the differentiation of Pierre-Robin sequence in the prenatal ultrasonography and to emphasize the importance of early sonographic diagnosis of the anomaly.

The prenatal diagnosis of Pierre-Robin sequence in prenatal ultrasonographic assessment is of great importance as it permits planning further course of pregnancy as well as EXIT procedure and postnatal treatment.


The first recommendations and guidelines for physicians training in fetal echocardiography (FE) were created in 1990 and later on up-dated by multiple medical associations and journals in Europe and the United States. This time advanced fetal cardiac ultrasound recommendations focused more on the organizational and logistical aspects of FE, to better define the fetal echo guidelines for practitioners in tertiary centers. Underlined is FE in 3rd trimester, with special attention to the direction of flow across the foramen ovale and ductus arteriosus.

AHA classification of heart defects in prenatal cardiology into seven major groups (from 2014) is presented as well as the Polish classification into four groups (from 2012) related to the urgency of required time to postnatal treatment/intervention based on FE findings in the 3rd trimester of pregnancy.

Current definition of fetal cardiologist in 2015 is also presented.