The work indicated in Polish literature as the cartographic basis for the negotiations of Polish issues at the Paris Peace Conference (1919–1920) is Eugeniusz Romer’s Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland). Given the complicated fate of the atlas, the position of its author in the Polish delegation, and the multidisciplinarity and importance of the conference, it is worth considering whether this atlas really played such an important role, or whether this is merely a statement, a repeated assignment of this role, to stave off concealment or lack of knowledge about other cartographic materials developed and used for the same purpose. Therefore, the main aim of this study was to determine the level of use of cartographic documents other than the Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland in lobbying and official negotiations of Polish issues before and during the Paris Peace Conference. The research task was associated with an extensive archival query, which confirmed the fact that dozens of maps survived, mainly manuscripts, which were prepared before and during the conference. It should be concluded that the maps of E. Romer’s atlas constituted one set of many equally important cartographic documents which were used by the negotiators at the Paris Peace Conference.
Information about the condition of ice cover on surface of the water, which are the content of map, are important for carrying out safe navigation and efficient economic activity in the polar regions. Methods of mapping can be fully automated on the basis of developed through years of experience algorithms or additionally supported by experienced professionals. The content of some of those now commonly encountered maps is compiled on the basis of mixed methods. In this work geographic positions of ice maps content are analyzed taking into consideration their usefulness for planning ship’s voyage in ice. The results of this work allow using the contents of studied maps for determining the ship’s route in ice and voyage planning of the ship in ice according to her hull strengthening.
The ice maps often have boundary lines for different values of reference. The maximum width of the strips of each boundary line within the Marginal Ice Zone is 100 km. The mean square error of position of the analyzed maps is +/− 2.0 km. Average locations of boundaries are consistent except for GRIB type maps of the OSI SAF and NIS, which seem to indicate much lower value of ice floe concentration. The NIC MIZ maps and S-411 standard maps are consistent for the 13% and 81% concentration. The 40% limits on MASIE maps and 46% limits of concentration on S-411 standard maps are also consistent. The course of ice edge issued by the NIS for the GMDSS METAREA, 19 region visualizes well the boundaries of the area where the ship might encounter any form of ice. Information of the GMDSS METAREA 20 region issued by the AARI represents the average of the limits 1 to 46% of all sources of information, and on average the 13% limit of ice concentration. The one-year old ice limit with thickness of 0.10 to 0.30 meters on the AARI map is consistent with course and average location of boundaries of 81% ice concentration on the NIC MIZ map and S-411 standard map. The multi-year old ice limit of thickness from 0.30 to 2.00 meters on the AARI map is coincident with the 79% limit of concentration displayed on the NIS map.
The Geograficzno-statystyczny atlas Polski (Geographical and Statistical Atlas of Poland), printed in Vienna in 1916, was elaborated due to remind the world about Poland and the Polish issue. At that time Poland had been partitioned for over 120 years and it was very important to provide comprehensive information about historical Polish territory and its inhabitants before the end of the ongoing war. It was a significant decision because the atlas appeared to be crucial to establishing borders of the Second Polish Republic at the Paris Peace Conference. In 2016 the hundredth anniversary of first edition of atlas is a great occasion for a historical and methodical brief outline.
The atlas was the fundamental work of Eugeniusz Romer, a distinguished geographer, cartographer and geo-politician. All of the 65 maps and 5 diagrams were elaborated by himself and his collaborators: W. Semkowicz, J. Nowak, W. Szafer, S. Weigner, J. Rutkowski, K. Nitsch, B. Chodkiewicz. It includes maps showing physiograpy, administrative division, history of the Polish territory, population, nationality, religion, agriculture, industry and transport, developed on the basis of official data sources. It is noteworthy that E. Romer introduced the isarithmic method on a large scale to present both population and socio-economic phenomena.
As an all-embracing work, Atlas played a major role in drawing the boundaries of the reborn Poland in post-war Europe. This also shows that thematic cartography has been an essential instrument in argumentation for the national interest of Poland.
The research on the ice cover of waterways, rivers, lakes, seas and oceans by satellite remote sensing methods began at the end of the twentieth century. There was a lot of data sources in diverse file formats. It has not yet carried out a comparative assessment of their usefulness. A synthetic indicator of the quality of data sources binding maps resolution, file publication, time delay and the functionality for the user was developed in the research process. It reflects well a usefulness of maps and allows to compare them. Qualitative differences of map content have relatively little impact on the overall assessment of the data sources. Resolution of map is generally acceptable. Actuality has the greatest impact on the map content quality for the current vessel’s voyage planning in ice.
The highest quality of all studied sources have the regional maps in GIF format issued by the NWS / NOAA, general maps of the Arctic Ocean in NetCDF format issued by the OSI SAF and the general maps of the Arctic Ocean in GRIB-2 format issued by the NCEP / NOAA. Among them are maps containing information on the quality of presented parameter. The leader among the map containing all three of the basic characteristics of ice cover (ice concentration, ice thickness and ice floe size) are vector maps in GML format. They are the new standard of electronic vector maps for the navigation of ships in ice.
Publishing of ice cover maps in the standard electronic map format S-411 for navigation of vessels in ice adopted by the International Hydrographic Organization is advisable in case is planned to launch commercial navigation on the lagoons, rivers and canals. The wide availability of and exchange of information on the state of ice cover on rivers, lakes, estuaries and bays, which are used exclusively for water sports, ice sports and ice fishing is possible using handheld mobile phones, smartphones and tablets.
Advanced terrain models are currently commonly used in many video/computers games. Professional GIS technologies, existing spatial datasets and cartographic methodology are more widely used in their development. This allows for achieving a realistic model of the world. On the other hand, the so-called game engines have very high capability of spatial data visualization. Preparing terrain models for the purpose of video games requires knowledge and experience of GIS specialists and cartographers, although it is also accessible for non-professionals. The authors point out commonness and variety of use of terrain models in video games and the existence of a series of ready, advanced tools and procedures of terrain model creating. Finally the authors describe the experiment of performing the process of data modeling for “Condor Soar Simulator”.
The authors present a content analysis of the selected textbooks for teaching the natural science in the Polish primary school in the scope of cartography and topography. Two series of textbooks edited by the Nowa Era publishing house and approved by the Ministry of National Education are used by the authors. The main aim of this analysis is to determine whether the textbooks meet the requirements of the new core curriculum. The psychological aspects that may cause the difficulties in learning the natural science for students of grades 4 through 6 of the primary school are also discussed.
The contents of textbooks are absorbed by the students in varying degrees. It is important, therefore, to take into account the psychological aspects of the students’ learning process and draw attention to the difficulties that may arise in the course of grade 4–6 instruction. Among them there are, inter alia, the difficulties in using a map scale, some problems with imagining the actual distances and areas, a height above the sea level and the relative heights, as well as the issues related to the students’ abilities to read a drawing of contour lines.
In the process of natural science education in the primary school, it is very important to develop the children’s abstract thinking, which causes the stimulation of their spatial imagination. The various types of teaching aids, which can be helpful for the both groups, as for the teachers, so for the students, are discussed in this article. These are the atlases, models, interactive teaching aids, books and educational games.
The analysis introduced in this article allows for a critical evaluation of the textbooks for primary school from the point of view of their content complacencies on cartography and topography with the new core curriculum.
Teaching the bases of cartography and topography from an early age is very important, but developing the ability to use a map requires the continuous exercises. Working with a map helps to develop not only the practical skills, but also the students’ attitudes having a positive impact on the development of such qualities as conscientiousness, accuracy and patience; it also has an invaluable impact on the students’ spatial imagination.
The author describes the properties and mechanisms of visual perception in the context of their significance to the principles of symbol design as used in cartography. Map perception relies on the process of visual perception. Therefore, the knowledge of its inner workings in the map environment allows cartographers to construct cartographic symbols in agreement with the properties of the visual system.
Visual perception involves neurosensory processes taking place between the eye and the short-term memory. As such, they operate independently of the beholder’s consciousness and significantly influence the information received by the map user. The author discusses the mechanisms of human vision and the nature of the process of visual perception. It also shows the relationships between the image characteristic and the visual system’s properties such as the optical resolution, visual adaptation, reactions of inhibition and reinforcement, reactions to the image characteristics – as well as the phenomena of contrast, grouping and spatial arrangement.
The principles of constructing map symbols that have been developed in the long course of cartography, and based mostly on the map makers’ intuition, find validation in the light of properties and mechanisms of visual perception. As discussed in the paper, the fundamental properties and basic mechanisms of human vision support the view that knowledge of how the visual system works provides foundation for articulating new mapping guidelines and cartographers’ calls for stricter observance of cartographic principles are fully justified.
The adaptations of foreign cartographical works are the constant publishing practices. The subject matters of these studies are the adaptations of foreign geographical atlases, prepared for the Polish users before 1989.
This article attempts to prove the thesis, that the activities of authors and publishers measured by a number and degree of adjustment of the above mentioned adaptations to the needs of the Polish customers in the scope of Polish adaptations of foreign geographical atlases are dependent on the external circumstances, mainly, on the political and socio-economic ones. The aims of these research studies are brought to determine a scope of changes adapting the foreign atlases to the Polish users in the context of the workshop of cartographer and to compare these kinds of publishing activity in the respective periods. The results of these works confirmed the thesis, which was put at the beginning, that the activities of authors and publishers in the field of adaptation depend on the external circumstances. It is clear from the analysis of the examined adaptations, that the greatest activity in this scope is characterised by two periods: the period of partitions of Poland and the next period of activity after the year 1989.
Referring to the kinds of adaptations, which were proposed in the article written by B. Konopska and J. Pasławski (2015), it is necessary to mention, that the main principles of the compilations of adaptations in the earlier periods were just the same as we have today. All the atlases can be divided into the basic adaptations and complex ones. Using the reviews and overviews of the adaptations written at the time, when they were issued, we can also say, that the geographical names were and now are the biggest problems for the authors.
The paper deals with the application of Geographic Information System software in cartographic data presentation in the field of historical data mining. Lists of soldiers buried in the I world war cemeteries near Jasło were used. The prepared database helped to create series of maps, mainly diagram maps, that serve as a useful statistical and demographic characteristics of the phenomena. The authors stressed advantages of the solution used and the usefulness of historical data in spatial database preparation process. The shortages of the GIS software itself were also pointed out, especially as long as cartographic editing and methodology principles are concerned.
Map projections are very important in the compilation of various types of maps and spatial databases. Geographical information systems provide their users with the significant opportunities in the choice of map projections, coordinate systems, their definitions and transitions between them. The role of map projection can be considered depending on an objective, for which a map has to be used, user of this map and a form of its publication. The Internet, mobile devices and GIS caused that the map projections are used for two main purposes: data visualization and performing of calculations and analyses. The role of map projections is still important, despite the changes occurring in cartography. The rules for the applications of map projections developed over the centuries are still valid. However, the new rules resulting from the new functions of map projections are also created. The aim of this article, that is the author’s overview of map projections, is to illustrate the broad spectrum of applications for the map projections.