This paper presents an analysis of environmental and technical conditions necessary for working out a possibly most favourable propulsion system for a two – segment passenger ship intended for navigation between Berlin and Kaliningrad. There are presented various types of propulsion systems for small ships as well as analyzed their possible applications and consequences. In this work there were taken into account system’s reliability, efficiency, dimensions, mass and costs of manufacturing, assembling and possible replacing the system components as well as an impact on maneuverability and natural environment. With taking into account the above mentioned criteria it was finally found that the diesel-hydraulic system fitted with two azimuthal ducted solid propellers is the most favourable. There are also presented a schematic propulsion and control diagram, three-dimensional arrangement drawing of system components as well as assembly drawing of the designed azimuthal propulsion system.
A seaport is presented in this article as a system composed of various types of waterways. The author has defined relationships between port waterway system elements and conditions of safe operation of ships in port. Relationships were determined between the conditions of safe operation of ships and the parameters of the following port waterways: anchorage, fairways (approach and inner channels, port entrances), turning area and port basin. The identified relationships between port waterway system and conditions of safe ship operation provided a basis for formulating the objective function of waterway parameter optimization during port design. In practice, these relations were used to determine the parameters of the Outer Container Terminal being built in Świnoujście, where two optimization problems were to be solved:
The optimization of approach channel parameters,
The optimization of parameters of the port entrance, turning area and port basin.
The Outer Container Terminal in Świnoujście is expected to handle ocean-going ships with a length overall Lo = 400 m, and its projected capacity is estimated at 1.5 million TEU per year, a figure that can be doubled in the future.
The paper presents a research stand being a diagnostic model of radial lip seals used, among others, on crankshafts of piston combustion engines in order to identify the correctness of their operation. The possibility of determining the technical condition of lip seals on the basis of the proposed coefficient of correctness of operation has been described. The basic features of seals influencing their correctness of operation were also described, along with examples of determining the durability limits of lip seals. A modified version of the friction node of the T-02 four-ball apparatus is presented. It allows to check the correctness of sealing lips operation as well as to test the compatibility between the steel shaft, sealing lip and sealed lubricating oil. It was shown that the test results con-firmed the usefulness of the hypothesis that the quality of oil affects the durability of sealing lips and their coefficient of correctness. Additionally, attention was paid to the possibility of analyzing the pumping effect affecting the transition of the seal-shaft system from the state of partial suitability S2 to the state of full suitability S1 or to the state of unfitness S3, and because the change in the state of such a system is random, it requires a probabilistic analysis.
In this study, the dynamic characteristic problem of riser structure with complex pre-stress distribution is investigated. At first, the differential equation of the riser structure with complex pre-stress distribution is derived. The analytical expression of the free vibration of a riser structure with complex pre-stress distribution is discussed by using the orthogonal property of the trigonometric series. A top-tensioned riser (TTR) for example, the influences of the amplitude and direction of complex pre-stress on natural frequency and mode shape characteristics are compared. This study provides a new method for addressing the riser structure response problem with complex loading.
The environmental assessment of the surface water quality of the Western Bug River has been made using the system of classification quality of land surface water of Ukraine in accordance with the approved methodology, which allows comparing water quality of separate areas of water objects of different regions. The calculation of the environmental assessment of water quality has been carried according to three blocks: block of salt composition, block of trophic and saprobic (ecological and sanitary) indicators and block of indicators of content of specific toxic substances. The results are presented in the form of a combined environmental assessment, based on the final conclusions of the three blocks and consists in calculating the integral ecological index. Comprehensive studies of changes in the water quality of the Western Bug River have been conducted within the territory of Ukraine for a long-term period. The water quality of the river on the final values of the integral indicators of the ecological condition corresponded mainly to 4nd category of the 3rd class – the water is “satisfactory” by condition and “little polluted” by degree of purity (except for points of observation that located within the Volyn region, where the water quality corresponded to 3rd category and the 2nd class. It is “good” by condition and “fairly clean” by the degree of purity). Visualization and part of the analysis are performed using GIS technologies in the software of the ArcGIS 10.3.
A sediment trap with bamboo materials can be utilized as one alternative of eco-friendly technology to reduce the erosion that occurred on agricultural land. This study aims to determine the most efficient form of that sediment trap in the field. Location study is in the Tulungrejo Village, Batu, Indonesia, which has andosol soil type and 35 cases of a landslide in 2013. Three forms of sediment traps were used (square, trapezoidal, and stratified type) with the purpose to find the most effective form. It is obtained that the most effective sediment trap is a stratified form with the 31.91% effectiveness or able to withstand sediment of 25.02 kg, while the adequate number is two pieces with the ability to withstand the most considerable sediment of (91.70%). Therefore this stratified form of sediment traps is effective in erosion prevention on agricultural land in the study area. For further development, it is required to test out the variations of the contents in a broader area with a more varied level of the slope.
Krueng Baro Irrigation is focused on increasing the productivity of food crops in Pidie District, Aceh Province, Indonesia. However, due to the age of the irrigation infrastructure (more than 30 years) and its large networks, it is necessary to investigate the actual water conveyance efficiency. This study aimed to evaluate the conveyance efficiency of primary and secondary channels of the irrigation system, as well as to create a water balance model based on the actual water conveyance efficiency. The model by using Excel Solver with its objective function is to maximize the area of the irrigated land. Based on the optimization model of the water balance, the design condition can irrigate an area of 9,496 ha (paddy-I), 4,818 ha (paddy-II), and 11,950 ha (onion). The measurement results reported that the actual efficiency of Baro Kanan and Baro Kiri was 56% and 48% smaller compared to the efficiency of the designs (65%). The water loss was due to the damage to the channel lining and channel erosion resulting in the high sedimentation, leakage, and illegal water tapping. These lead to a decrease in the area of the irrigated land. Based on the optimization model of the actual water balance, the irrigated land was reduced to 7,876 ha (paddy I) and 3,997 ha (paddy-II) while it remained the same for onion. Therefore, to increase the efficiency, the regular maintenance and operations are required by fixing the damaged irrigation structure and channels, the maintenance of sedimentation, and the strict regulation of illegal water tapping.
The Turkish Merchant Shipping Industry has recently witnessed an increasing awareness of the importance to minimize environmental pollution and fuel oil consumption. Together with certain non-governmental organizations and media concerns about environmental protection, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) has been strict on controlling undesirable effects on the environment and, consequently, forcing shipping companies to minimize their emissions. Besides, today’s highly advanced technology companies over the world have developed various innovative systems that can be utilized to minimize carbon emission, thus giving assurance to relevant investors that their investments are most likely to turn out well with a considerable financial gain in the short or long term. Despite all such favorable developments, in a general look, shipping companies seem reluctant in making use of technologies providing efficiency in energy consumption. This reluctance has eventually brought about the term “Energy Efficiency Gap”. This research conducts a questionnaire, created by Acciaro et al. , among the shipping companies in Turkey. 20 respondent companies, who represent 26 percent of the Turkish owned merchant marine fleet of over 1000 gross tonnage in terms of deadweight cargo capacity, participated in the research. The Pearson correlation analysis was used, and interpretations were made according to the obtained statistical values. The aim of the research was to identify reasons and points restraining the use of new technologies regarding energy efficiency, as well as to develop proposals for the innovators in this field about how to overcome this handicap concerning technical and managerial aspects of gaining energy efficiency.
The article aims at defining and analysing the energy loss coefficients in design solutions of rotating displacement machines, with a piston machine as an example. The energy losses observed in these machines include mechanical loss, volumetric loss, and pressure loss. The scale and relations between these losses in different machines depend on machine design and manufacturing quality, and on operating parameters. The operating parameters, in turn, which affect directly or indirectly the above losses depend on whether the machine works in pump or hydraulic motor regime. The article is also a contribution to the development of a library of ki coefficients which define the losses in displacement machines, as the knowledge about these coefficients makes it possible to assess fast and easily the energy efficiency of a machine or drive system at each point of its working area.
In recent years, the increasing threat to ground water quality due to human activities has become a matter of great concern. The ground water quality problems present today are caused by contamination and by over exploitation or by combination of both. Reverse osmosis (RO) desalination is one of the main technologies for producing fresh water from sea water and brackish ground water.
Algeria is one of the countries which suffer from the water shortage since many years, so desalination technology becomes inevitable solution to this matter.
In this study, a comparison is provided of results of reverse osmosis desalination for three different qualities of brackish water from the central-east region of Algeria (Bouira and Setif Prefectures), wherein they cannot use it as human drinking or in irrigation systems. The main objective of our study is to establish a comparison of the reverse osmosis membrane TW30-2540 performances in the term of (permeate flow, recovery rate, permeate total dissolved solids – TDS and salts rejection) under different operation pressures (each one takes a time of 720 second for pilot scaling). In order to make an overview comparison between the experimental and the simulated results we used ROSA (Reverse Osmosis System Analysis) software.
At the end of this study we noted that, the simulated results are lower than the pilot scaling values and the most removed salts are the sodium chlorides with 99.05% of rejection rate.