Although various analytical and numerical methods have been proposed by researchers to solve equations, but use of numerical tools with low volume calculations and high accuracy instead of other numerical methods with high volume calculations is inevitable in the analysis of engineering equations. In this paper, B-Spline spectral method was used to study buckling equations of the piles. Results were compared with the calculated amounts of the exact solution and finite element method. Uniform horizontal reaction coefficient has been used in most of proposed methods for analyzing buckling of the pile on elastic base. In reality, soil horizontal reaction coefficient is nonlinear along the pile. So, in this research by using B-Spline method, buckling equation of the pile with nonlinear horizontal reaction coefficient of the soil was investigated. It is worth mentioning that B-Spline method had not been used for buckling of the pile.
Dams are considered as strategic structures due to their initial role in economic system of the country, therefore, they are expected to be fully functional and powerful. Nano technology could be an effective factor of abrasion and compressive strength, porosity and hydraulic conductivity coefficient of the concrete, thus more scientific research is essential to be carried out on these types of concrete due to their quite modern and high technology. In the current study, the effects of water-cement ratio on compressive and abrasion strength, porosity and hydraulic conductivity coefficient of concrete was investigated. The constructed concrete samples with 4% Nano-silica and water-cement ratios of 0.35 to 0.55 were tested. Other design features remained fixed in all concrete samples. The compressive strength of block samples of 150×150×150 mm were assessed in terms of time lasting 7, 28 and 90 days. The abrasion strength of the identical block samples were tested after 28 days. The hydraulic conductivity coefficient of cylindrical shape samples with the diameter 150 mm and height of 300 mm were experimented after 28 days. The results of the experiments indicated that by reducing the water-cement ratio from 0.55 to 0.35, the compressive strength increased 37.13, 40.14 and 38.22% for 7, 28 and 90 days age samples respectively and abrasion strength of concrete increased 38.22% and the hydraulic conductivity coefficient (m/s) and depth of penetration (mm) of the concrete decreased from 27.76×10−15 and 2.756 to 1.5×10−15 and 0.784 respectively. In addition porosity decreased from 12.76 to 11.22%.
This paper describes the recent theoretical and experimental research by the Netherlands Organisation for Applied Scientific Research (TNO) into green replacements for hydrazine, hydrazine derivatives and nitrogen tetroxide, as propellants for in-space propulsion. The goal of the study was to identify propellants that are capable of outperforming the current propellants for space propulsion and are significantly less hazardous for humans and the environment. Two types of propellants were investigated, being monopropellants and bipropellants. The first section of the paper discusses the propellant selection. Nitromethane was found to be the most promising monopropellant. As bipropellant, a combination of hydrogen peroxide (HP) and ethanol was selected, where the ethanol is rendered hypergolic with hydrogen peroxide. The second part of the paper describes the experimental verification of these propellants by means of engine testing. Initiation of the decomposition of nitromethane was found to be problematic, hypergolic ignition of the hydrogen peroxide and ethanol bipropellant however was successfully demonstrated.
The paper presents practical aspects of determining the amount of heat flow by measuring the distribution of surface temperature using the Temperature Sensitive Paint (TSP) method. The quantity measured directly with TSP is the intensity of the excited radiation, which is then converted to surface temperature. The article briefly presents three different methods for determining the heat transfer coefficient. Each of these methods is based on a separate set of assumptions and significantly influences the construction of the measuring station. The advantages of each of the presented methods are their individual properties, allowing to improve accuracy, reduce the cost of testing or the possibility of using them in tests of highly complex objects. For each method a mathematical model used to calculate the heat transfer coefficient is presented. For the steady state heat transfer test method that uses a heater of constant and known thermal power, examples of the results of our own research are presented, together with a comparison of the results with available data and a discussion of the accuracy of the results obtained.
Numerous attempts have been undertaken to develop propulsion systems for nano-satellite-type spacecrafts to enable their maneuvering in orbits. One of the potentially viable chemical propellant propulsion systems is a hybrid system. The present paper studies propellant composition variants with the metal hydride as fuel that can be chosen for a nano-satellite hybrid propulsion system. It defines key requirements for chemical propellant nano-satellite propulsion systems, and specifies potential propellant pairs based on a compact metal hydride. The study describes basic technical characteristics of a 1U CubeSat propulsion system.
The VOLTA project is a RISE Marie-Curie action designed to realize Research & Innovation (R&I) among intersectoral partners to exchange knowledge, methods and workflows in the geospatial field. To accomplish its objectives, the main R&I activities of VOLTA are divided in four interlinked Work Packages with two transversal ones responsible for knowledge transfer & training as well as dissemination of the project results. The research activities and knowledge transfer are performed with a series of secondments between partners. The consortium is composed of 13 partners from academic & research institutions, industrial partners and national mapping agencies. The Romanian National Center of Cartography is part of this research project and in this article the achievements of the secondment at Bruno Kessler Foundation in Trento (Italy) are given. The main goal of the exchange was to generate level of detail - LOD2 building models in an automated manner from photogrammetric point clouds and without any ancillary data. To benchmark existing commercial solutions for the realization of LOD2 building models, we tested Building Reconstruction. This program generates LOD2 models starting from building footprints, digital terrain model (DTM) and digital surface model (DSM). The presented work examined a research and a commercial-based approach to reconstruct LOD2 building models from point clouds. The full paper will report all technical details of the work with insight analyses and comparisons.
The article presents comprehensive documentation of the situation of post-mining Miedzianka village (former town), which is located in Lower Silesia, in south-western Poland. Due to the long-term expansive mining exploitation since the 14th century, over time Miedzianka was completely destroyed and depopulated, thus nowadays, only a few inhabitants live there. The basis for the conducted research area were changes in land and urban structure that have been occurring for centuries in connection with mining operation of copper and uranium. The authors focused on presenting the changes using archival cartographic documentation, land surveying measurements and 3D modelling. That data allowed to determine on the ground specific sites related to mining operations, discover old urban buildings, performing their 3D models and finding places potentially threatened by continuous and discontinuous deformations. The combination of all the data allowed to present the full situation that occurred in Miedzianka.
Progress in miniaturization of satellite components allows complex missions to be performed by small spacecraft. Growing interest in the small satellite sector has led to development of standards such as CubeSat, contributing to lower costs of satellite development and increasing their service competitiveness. Small satellites are seen now as a prospective replacement for conventional sized satellites in the future, providing also services for demanding users. New paradigms of multi-satellite missions such as fractionation and federalization also open up new prospects for applications of small platforms.
To perform a comprehensive simulation and analysis of future nanosatellite missions, an adequate propulsion system model must be used. Such model should account for propulsion solutions which can be implemented on nanosatellites and used in multi-satellite missions.
In the paper, concepts of distributed satellite systems (constellations, formations, fractionated and federated) are described with a survey of past, on-going and planned multi-satellite nanosatellites missions. Currently developed propulsion systems are discussed and the models of propulsion systems embedded in the WUT satellite simulation model are presented.
Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) presently utilized as a part of special structures subjected to dynamic loads for example airport pavements, expressways overlays, bridge decks and machine foundations. In most cases, FRC contains just a single kind of fibre. The utilization of at least two kinds of fibres in an appropriate mix can possibly improve the mechanical properties of concrete and result in performance synergy. The audit demonstrates that the blend of fibre allows a more powerful control of the dynamic crack development. This review analyses the components for synergistic impacts that gives direction on the fiber and matrix choice.
Smart Cities are no longer just an aspiration, they are a necessity. For a city to be smart, accurate data collection or improvement the existing ones is needed, also an infrastructure that allows the integration of heterogeneous geographic information and sensor networks at a common technological point. Over the past two decades, laser scanning technology, also known as LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging), has become a very important measurement method, providing high accuracy data and information on land topography, vegetation, buildings, and so on. Proving to be a great way to create Digital Terrain Models. The digital terrain model is a statistical representation of the terrain surface, including in its dataset the elements on its surface, such as construction or vegetation. The data use in the following article is from the LAKI II project “Services for producing a digital model of land by aerial scanning, aerial photographs and production of new maps and orthophotomaps for approximately 50 000 sqKm in 6 counties: Bihor, Arad, Hunedoara, Alba, Mures, Harghita including the High Risk Flood Zone (the border area with the Republic of Hungary in Arad and Bihor)”, which are obtained through LiDAR technology with a point density of 8 points per square meter. The purpose of this article is to update geospatial data with a higher resolution digital surface model and to demonstrate the differences between a digital surface models obtain by aerial images and one obtain by LiDAR technology. The digital surface model will be included in the existing geographic information system of the city Marghita in Bihor County, and it will be used to help develop studies on land use, transport planning system and geological applications. It could also be used to detect changes over time to archaeological sites, to create countur lines maps, flight simulation programs, or other viewing and modelling applications.