The aim of the article, defined by the author as discursive, is to give the answer as to whether within ‘revitalization’ we should distinguish the notion of ‘linear revitalization’ – not yet defined in Polish and English-language literature. The author presents the thesis that we should do so by presenting the idea, its specific character and its role. This kind of action seems to have, in the author’s opinion, a positive influence on contemporary cities regarding the growing problems that result from fragmentation and lack of physical, social, economic and ecological connectivity. The general overview of revitalization provides the basis for proving the necessity of specific solutions relating to degraded linear structures. Linear revitalization, as presented, relates to different city structures which need renewal. It may become an important tool for sustainable city development and may improve the quality of life. Theoretical deliberations, presenting the reasons, needs, ideas, draft classifications, tasks and positive effects of linear revitalization have been supplemented by some case studies from Poland and abroad. The benefits to whole city structures of carrying out linear revitalization are presented. They justify the creation of a new definition and further research. The approach presented, being in the author’s opinion the beginning of the discussion, meets the need to look for effective new methods and tools within urban revitalization, solving the problems and fulfilling the new challenges of contemporary cities.
Adaptation to climate change has become an important element of urban policy development in the member states of the European Union. These issues are dealt with in EU documents, as well as in national and local strategies and city adaptation plans. In Poland, the challenge of preparing for climate change has been presented in the Strategic Adaptation Plan for Sectors and Areas Sensitive to Climate Change in Poland within the Perspective of 2030 referring to sectors and areas sensitive to the impact of climate change. Adaptation to climate change is a key element in creating spatial policy for cities and urbanised areas at different levels. One of the most important issues of this policy is the quality of the renovated urban areas and its role in connecting-up and strengthening adaptation capacity. Among the strategic areas indicated in the above-mentioned document, there is also urban policy taking climate change into consideration. One of the selected problem areas relating to the development of urban policy is the renewal and strengthening of the development potential of towns and cities via the regeneration of degraded urban areas and post-industrial land in cities. Both local authorities, entities whose professional role is to deal with urban issues, and the inhabitants of urbanised areas face a twofold challenge. This consists of enhancing the quality of urban areas via regeneration and strengthening the city’s potential for adaptation. That is why it is extremely important to notice the interconnections and opportunities provided by urban renewal and regeneration programmes and projects in the context of adaptation to climate change. Synergy of activities in those two areas of urban policy may bring about very measurable benefits and may enable a cohesive solution to be adopted with regard to many crucial environmental, social, and economic problems.
In this paper the role of an Integrated transport system and mobility in the development of Gdańsk Bay Metropolitan Area is discussed, with special emphasis on how it influences the development of comprehensive, polycentric urban structures. The paper consists of an analysis of how the changes, which occurred after the socio-economic transformation shaped the transport system, and as a consequence the spatial structure, of Gdańsk Bay Metropolitan Area. At the beginning of the paper historic, present and future development of integrated transport systems and the urban structure of the metropolis are described and then strategies and proposed solutions are introduced. The last chapter includes conclusions and recommendations for the future role of the integrated transport system in shaping the development of the Gdańsk Bay Metropolitan Area.
The article aims at presenting the phenomenon of transgression of the modern urban space through the formation of new spatial units defining the city in relation to its productive sphere. Due to the gradual departure from the notion of an enclosed city to one that is open and connected to the form of the surrounding countryside, the problem of defining a new notion of modern urban-rural space emerged. One of the first manifestations of this phenomenon is the emergence of new forms of housing that combine urban features with food production. Analysis of examples such as EVA-Laxmeer in Culemborg, Agromere in Almere, Cannery in Davis, Detroit and Philadelphia allowed for the verification of architectural and planning concepts related to urban values as a form of urban development of new agricultural forms. These phenomena can be understood both as a process of tearing the compact tissue of a city or, in the case of a less orthodox approach towards the built environment, as a process of network layering towards self-sufficiency of various structural, functional, energy-related and food production related characters within the unfavourable external conditions.
One of the objectives of Poland’s accession to the European Union was to accelerate modernisation and development processes both nationally and locally. Cohesion policy measures provide a way to support these modernisation processes, and cities, especially large ones, play a particular role in this regard. The study aims to assess the role of EU cohesion policy funds in urban development in Poland (with the example of major cities – cities with poviat status). The expenditure on the implementation of projects financed with EU funds accounts for more than half of the investment expenditure of cities with poviat status. Placing it in the context of the full spectrum of public intervention, as well as investments by businesses and other actors on the territories of cities, those cities are the largest beneficiaries of EU cohesion funds in Poland. In the light of the results of quantitative research it can be said that the implementation of cohesion policy is important for large cities and has had an impact on the improvement of their economic situation. By analysing the thematic structure of the projects that have been carried out and co-financed with EU funds we can see that they have contributed to smart, sustainable and inclusive growth, but the scale of this impact should be the subject of further research.
Climate change may have severe consequences for urban areas and many cities, such as those situated on deltas, are already threatened. The paper claims that the solution for endangered areas is the embedding of urban climate resilience. The concept of resilience is put forward to bring a broad perspective to a city with an indication that the city is a complex system with developed relations, both inward and outward. Social and institutional aspects of these relations are highlighted as they have the highest potential to make the city resilient. The paper indicates three fundamental features of embedding the resilience of urban areas to climate change: network building, a strategic approach and implementing urban projects. A practical application of these fundamental features is evaluated using the case study of Rotterdam. The research shows the reliability of these bases and indicates key characteristics of each fundamental feature: the network should be multidimensional with solid institutional and interpersonal relations, the strategy should have a holistic approach and project implementation needs the engagement of all the city actors.
The Nowe Centrum Łodzi project that was completed in 2007 in Łódź, Poland is one of the biggest contemporary large-scale urban (re)development projects in Europe and the largest project of this type in Central Europe. The principal goals of the mega-project in question include the regeneration of degraded post-industrial and post-railway land in the city centre of Łódź and the enhancement of competitiveness and the metropolitan position of the city. The authors seek to identify spatial and functional changes at a mezo-scale, i.e. in the so-called immediate neighbourhood of the urban regeneration megaproject (URMP), which have accompanied the implementation of the Nowe Centrum Łodzi project over the years 2013–2016. The other aim was to classify urban areas neighbouring the URMP based on features of spatial and functional transformation identified in these areas. The studies allowed the researchers to identify three categories of urban area in the immediate neighbourhood of the URMP which revealed differences in spatial and functional transformations. We indicated that the transformation of the immediate neighbourhood of the URMP involved not only the local authorities responsible for the overall improvement of the quality of public space but also other users, inter alia, residents, local urban activists, the business community, public institutions, and NGOs, that in most cases complemented efforts initiated by the Municipality. From the methodological point of view the authors use a case study including desk research, an urban planning inventory, and direct observation.
This paper aims to give an in–depth account of the regeneration of the site of the former Katowice coalmine, by far the largest regeneration venture financed by the public sector on a post-industrial site in Poland, and to capture the primary outcomes and effects of this prestige project. Contrary to a simplified interpretation of a ‘Polish Bilbao effect’, the authors argue that the Culture Zone follows a unique development model that was driven by a coincidence of such factors as the situation of a major (post-) industrial conurbation seeking a new identity, the availability of external funding, chance events (with the origins of some of them dating back to WW2), and pre-existing spatial factors. The study area has been diagnosed to include all the positive effects of flagship projects, as well as most of the weaknesses associated with such a type of regeneration. All in all, it is a successful undertaking given the external conditions under which it has been implemented.
In recent years, the allocation of social housing has undergone a radical change. Local governments as well as housing organisations providing social housing are revising the procedures applied in the field by modifying methods for ranking applications. European experience shows that the general tendency is to replace the traditional allocation mechanism based solely on the criteria of income and needs with the one incorporating (though to a limited extent) the preferences of potential tenants. An example of innovative practice is announcing unoccupied social flats in the press and on the Internet which gives prospective tenants the opportunity to rethink the match between the housing conditions offered and the household’s needs. The aim of the paper is to explore various models of housing allocation used by local governments in EU countries and identify new trends within the field. A special focus is on the local regulations applied in the City of Poznań. Some information applied in the process of preparation of the paper has been obtained while conducting the research project “Social housing and its role in satisfying the housing needs of indigent households in Poland” financed by the National Science Centre (2014/13/N/HS4/02100).
Urban demographic transition can be defined as the historical period in which the population growth of cities structurally changes the settlement of territories. During this period, the urban population rate, which was previously very low, less than one-tenth of the population from the origins of humanity at least until the beginning of the 19th century, grew to be more than half of the population and sometimes much more. On a global average, the urban demographic transition was complete by 2008. Yet this transition is a double surprise in the history of the earth. The authors of the past had by no means envisaged it, and it is unprecedented in the history of the settlement of our planet. It will therefore be necessary to explain the unforeseen process that led to it. But it is essential to understand that urbanisation is deployed in a very differing way according to territories and countries. Finally, it is important to examine the period of post-transition, which concerns all countries whose urbanisation rate exceeds half the total population.