The knowledge of the existing levels and the interrelationships between various blood and milk parameters is very useful for the analysis and monitoring of homeostasis high-yielding dairy cows. The aim of the study was to evaluate these values and correlations for selected blood markers of liver function aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), bilirubin, albumin, glucose, cholesterol) and selected milk parameters: somatic cell count (SCC), colony-forming units (CFU), fat, protein, lactose, dry matter (DM), fat-free dry matter (FDM), and milk production in cows during late lactation period. At the same time blood and milk samples were collected from 11 clinically healthy milking cows in later lactation period. The 11 selected cows were examined once a day for 3 days resulting in 33 sets of blood and milk samples for laboratory and statistical analysis. Significant positive correlations were observed between: ALT and albumin, ALT and cholesterol, GGT and glucose, albumin and cholesterol, CFU and fat, CFU and DM, SCC and protein, fat and DM, protein and FDM, lactose and FDM, GPT and FDM, albumin and protein, albumin and FDM, glucose and fat, as well as significant negative correlations between: AST and ALT, AST and GGT, AST and albumin, CFU and lactose, fat and lactose, fat and FDM, lactose and DM, DM and FDM, AST and SCC, AST and protein, AST and FDM, ALT and fat, ALT and DM, glucose and DM, cholesterol and CFU. The results obtained may be important for detecting of different biochemical pathways and helpful in estimating, predicting or determining trends, the direction of changes in liver functions and assessing the risk of alert levels for liver blood markers, when only daily results of milk parameters are available.
Organophosphate insecticides are known to inhibit the activity of enzyme acetylcholinesterase. They affect olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees. These insecticides cause mushroom body inactivation in honeybees, but their influence on other brain regions involved in olfactory perception and memory is unknown. The goal of this study was to study the effects of organophosphate insecticide diazinon on carnolian honeybee (Apis mellifera carnica) acetylcholinesterase activity in the olfactory brain regions of antennal lobe, mushroom body and lateral procerebrum (lateral horn). The lamina, medulla and lobula of optic lobes were also analyzed. The level of acetylcholinesterase activity was visualized using the histochemical staining method. Densitometric analysis of histochemical signals indicated that diazinon inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity only in the lip of calyces of mushroom body, but not in other analyzed olfactory regions, antennal lobe and lateral procerebrum. The visual brain system optic lobes were also unaffected. This is in accordance with the literature reporting that mushroom body is the main brain center for olfactory learning and memory formation in honeybees.
Hemolymph is the “blood” circulating in the entire insect body. Analysis of this fluid gives information about the condition of the insect. The most precise analyses are conducted on insects’ hemolymph suspended in 0.6% physiological saline (NaCl). Most current hemolymph extraction methods are either difficult or do not provide pure material, the contamination of collected insect “blood” can change results. This study aimed to develop a technique for extract hemolymph, both easy and without risk of contaminating derived material. The presented method is a modification of available ways to extract, store and transport hemolymph with the use of a glass capillary. For the development of this technique, adult worker honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) were used. The method required such basic equipment as a glass capillary, sterile tweezer, Eppendorf tube and physiological saline. The collected hemolymph were frozen and hence sent in a glass capillary to another laboratory for analysis.
An alternative to natural food shortage for honeybees is the provision of supplements. The objective of this research was to develop a method with ideal conditions for the fermentation of a protein supplement for honeybees. The microorganisms used were Lactobacilli, Bifidobacteria and Saccharomyces and the inulin prebiotic. There was an increase in lactic acid and a decrease in pH over a five-day fermentation period. The amount of acid bacteria present was 108–109 CFU/g of supplement. In the first phase the temperature and the humidity had significantly affected the fermentation but the variables inulin and probiotic didn’t. In the second phase, the lower temperatures and higher humidity produced the best effects on the fermentative responses. It was concluded that an ideal environment with temperature, humidity, inulin and probiotics could be created which allowed the fermentation of the protein supplement in five days obtaining final product fermentative characteristics close to bee bread.
Bovine tuberculosis, caused by M. bovis, is endemic in Mexico and has had a big impact on public health. Jalisco is considered to be an important dairy region in the country, accounting for approximately 19% of the total milk production. Within Jalisco, the region of Altos Sur holds the largest proportion of the cattle inventory of the state.
Material and Methods
To determine the frequency of bovine tuberculosis in Altos Sur, Jalisco, as well as M. bovis genetic diversity, sampling of tissue (lymph nodes, lungs, and liver) from Holstein cattle was performed in four abattoirs belonging to three municipalities of this region (Tepatitlán de Morelos, San Miguel el Alto, and Arandas). Spoligotyping and whole-genome sequencing were carried out to assess the genetic relationships of M. bovis strains circulating in this area, as well as a comparison to isolates from other places in Mexico.
Prevalence was 15.06%, and distribution similar among the three municipalities. The most frequent spoligotypes were SB0673, SB121, and SB0145. Whole-genome sequencing revealed three main clades (I, II, III), but isolates did not show clustering by region.
Phylogenetic analysis suggested ongoing transmission between herds of the different regions, and no unique source of infection was determined. This hinders efforts under the national program for the control and eradication of the disease, so serious attention must be paid to rural regions such as Altos Sur in order to improve its success.
Leishmaniasis is a zoonotic disease which is caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania. Canids are the most important reservoir of the parasites; however, limited data are available on the species of Leishmania prevalent in these animals and their impact on human health. The objective of this study was to estimate the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs from an inter-Andean region of Colombia during July 2016–July 2017, and to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the disease.
Material and Methods
A total of 155 dogs were subjected to clinical examination and a serological test for detection of antibodies against Leishmania. Necropsy was carried out on positive animals and tissue samples were processed by routine histopathology.
Altogether 19 dogs were positive in the serological test, establishing a 12% seroprevalence of Leishmania. Clinical examination and necropsy revealed exfoliative and ulcerative dermatitis with haemorrhagic borders on the ears, head, nose, and legs. Histopathology revealed severe multifocal dermatitis with abundant Leishmania amastigotes within the cytoplasm of phagocytic cells, depletion of lymphocytes in lymphoid tissues, interstitial pneumonia, and interstitial nephritis. Tissue samples were positive for Leishmania by PCR.
The macro- and microscopic changes correlated with the presence of Leishmania as established by serological test and PCR.
Five-minute heart-rate variability (HRV) measurement is a useful tool for assessing the autonomic nervous system (ANS) balance in humans, but there are no studies on healthy dogs. The aim of the study was, therefore, to provide the reference ranges in small and medium-sized breeds for short-term HRV time and frequency domain (TFD) analyses.
Material and Methods
A total of 79 healthy dogs were included in the study between 2015 and 2019. Grouping by age with the breakpoint at six years and subgrouping by reproductive status and sex was imposed. All the dogs were included after physical and cardiological examinations and blood analyses. The TFD of HRV were analysed from a five-minute-long digital ECG recording after removal of non-sinus complexes.
There were no statistically significant differences in any TFD parameters between age, reproductive status or sex groups. A mild increase in all time domain parameters and the high-frequency (HF) band was observed in older dogs, and the low frequency (LF):HF ratio decreased in these dogs. In males, the time domain parameters and HF band increased slightly.
The normal ranges for HRV derived from short-term ECG recording in the usual clinical environment now have proposed reference ranges. Our findings suggest that accommodation time, age, sex, or reproductive status do not influence the results derived from these recordings, indicating that this method is reliable for assessing the ANS function in small and medium-sized dog breeds.
Dobermann dogs are reportedly predisposed to familial glomerulonephropathy. Proteinuria is a hallmark of canine familial glomerular diseases. The identification of glomerular abnormalities in breeds so predisposed is of great importance in improving breeding policy. Therefore, markers that allow the detection and localisation of renal damage are needed. The purpose of this study was to investigate the urinary concentrations of immunoglobulin G (uIgG), retinol-binding protein (uRBP), and Tamm–Horsfall protein (uTHP) in a family of Dobermanns with proteinuria and compare these concentrations with the corresponding values in healthy controls.
Material and Methods
Ten dogs of the Dobermann breed with proteinuria (five with a urine protein-to-creatinine ratio (UPC) of 0.5–1 and five with a UPC >1) and twelve healthy dogs were enrolled. An ELISA was performed to measure uIgG, uRBP, and uTHP, and these proteins were quantified in relation to urinary creatinine (uCrea).
uIgG/uCr and uRBP/uCr were significantly higher in the family of Dobermanns than in the healthy dogs. A significant difference in the uTHP/uCr value was found only in dogs with a UPC of >1.
IgG seems to facilitate the diagnosis of primary hereditary glomerulopathy in Dobermanns. Moreover, in affected dogs, proteinuria characterisation seems to be a promising alternative option for the detection and localisation of renal lesions.
Diffuse cutaneous mastocytosis was diagnosed in a 6-year-old, indoor, neutered female domestic European shorthair cat. Marked pruritus located mainly on the head and neck was noticed in the cat and in this area the animal had developed alopecia, crusts, and plaques. Histologically, monomorphic mast cells were found in the superficial dermis and around the hair follicles. Mast cells were well differentiated, with central nuclei and granular cytoplasm, with metachromatic granules which stained positively with Toluidine blue stain. The animal was successfully treated with oclacitinib at a dose of 1 mg/kg, twice a day per os.
Over decades human well-being has recognized from ecosystems, not only through material goods but also through nonmaterial assets namely cultural ecosystem services (CES). Regardless of increasing Ecosystem Services (ES) research over the last decade, cultural services assessment still remains neglected and is mainly limited to marketable services such as recreation and ecotourism. Obvious challenges in standardizing definitions and measurement units have brought about numerous difficulties in accounting cultural services and specific related indicators in decision-making processes. In that regard, the current review intends to create a reference list of CES categories and related measurement units with commonly used indicators. To put it another way, we analysis 80 publications to identify the most common CES indicators using in mapping various categories of CES approaches. Results prove that there are various methods can be used in assessing CES categories, whereas we found 57 indicators can be used for that and most of these indicators can be utilized in urban planning context as spatial indicators. Moreover, it is obvious that almost the same indicators can be used in evaluating most CES categories. For instance, in case of recreation and tourism indicators almost 50 % of all collected indicators can be used for mapping it, on the contrary, in case of spiritual and religious values. In conclusion, while there are various mapping methods of CES and different indicators, most of CES categories have relatively ignored by the planner and decision-makers such as education and inspirational values. Therefore, we recommend the use of the collected indicators and relevant measurement units in assessing neglected values in future research.