Browse

61 - 70 of 1,729 items :

  • Chemical Engineering x
Clear All

Abstract

The enthalpy of isopropanol adsorption on ZSM-5 (Zeolite Socony Mobil Framework Type MFI) was determined by the static adsorption method at the temperature range from 20°C to 100°C. Langmuir and Huttig models of equilibrium adsorption have been used to calculate the enthalpy of isopropanol adsorption at these conditions. Adsorption isotherms determined by the flow method at 20°C and 30°C have been also used in the calculations. The obtained values of isopropanol adsorption enthalpy were compared with the values of isopropanol evaporation enthalpy and with the results obtained from isopropanol and water desorption measurements with thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry methods.

Abstract

New kind of adsorbent was produced from Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim shell. The KOH activation technology for preparation of Trichosanthes kirilowii Maxim shell activated carbon (TKMCK) was optimized. Using methylene blue as the sample adsorbate, the adsorption behavior was systematically investigated in terms of the activation agent and temperature, the adsorption temperature and time, the initial adsorbate pH and concentration, as well as the dosage of adsorbent. Surface physical morphology of the TKMCK prepared was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while the functional groups were determined with Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra. Kinetic studies indicated that the adsorption process was more consistent with the pseudo-second-order kinetic. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms were employed to fit the adsorption data at equilibrium, with the former giving a maximum adsorption capacity of 793.65 mg/g at 323 K. BET surface area of as-prepared TKMCK was 657.78 m2/g.

Abstract

For achieving a long service life of stamping dies for new types of steel sheets intended for the automotive industry, the tribosystem must be optimally designed. One of the possible solutions is its optimization by coatings. More modern coating technologies for stamping dies include PVD (physical vapor deposition) and CVD (chemical vapor deposition) methods. The properties of PVD TiCN and DLC (diamond-like carbon) coatings deposited on ledeburitic high-alloy Cr–Mo–V steel were analyzed by standard tests (coating adhesion by both the scratch and Rockwell C tests, microhardness by Vickers method and coating thickness by Calotest) and developed tribo-meter of the “friction jaw-roller” type at drawing double-sided hot-dip galvanized steel sheet. The obtained results showed better tribological behavior of the DLC coating.

Abstract

The aim of this study was to analyse the steam gasification process of ‘Janina’ coal with and without Na-, K- and Ca-catalysts. The catalysts were physically mixed with the coal due to the simplicity of this method, short time of execution and certainty that the amount of catalyst is exactly as the adopted one. The isothermal measurements were performed at 800, 900 and 950°C and a pressure of 1 MPa using thermovolumetric method. The obtained results enabled assessment of the effect of analysed catalysts on the process at various temperatures by determination of: i) carbon conversion degree; ii) yield and composition of the resulting gas; and iii) kinetics of formation reactions of main gas components – CO and H2. The addition of catalysts, as well as an increase in operating temperature, had a positive effect on the coal gasification process – reactions rates increased, and the process time was reduced.

Abstract

In this paper a new approach to the consistent identification of the deformation pattern vital for the precise determination of the plastic limit load of a cylindrical shell from MNA when using modified Southwell (MS) and Tangent Stiffness (TS) plots is presented. It is proposed that the formalised assessment of the plastic collapse load can be done by the application of the relation between the load factor increment ΔrR and the arc length s – for an identification of achievement of the complete plastic collapse mechanism from MNA, and then the MS or TS plot for the displacement pattern that corresponds to the identified plastic mechanism.

Abstract

Drug metabolism in liver microsomes was studied in vitro using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Relevant drug was incubated with dog, human and rat liver microsomes (DLMs, HLMs, RLMs) along with NADPH, and the reaction mixture was analyzed by LC-MS/MS to obtain specific metabolic profile. GRACE analytical C18 column, Vision HT (50 × 2 mm, 1.5 μm) was implemented with acetonitrile and water (+ 5 mM ammonium acetate) in a gradient mode as the mobile phase at a flow 0.4 mL.min−1. Different phase I and phase II metabolites were detected and structurally described. The metabolism of the studied drugs occurred via oxidation, hydroxylation and oxidative deamination processes. Conjugates with the glucuronic acid and sulfate were also observed as phase II biotransformation. The central composite design (CCD) showed that factors, such as time incubation, liver microsomal enzymes concentration and NADPH concentration, along with drying gas temperature, nebulizer gas pressure and capillary voltage significantly affected the final response of the method. This study describes the novel information about the chemical structure of the potential metabolites of selected biologically active compounds, which provide vital data for further pharmacokinetic and in vivo metabolism studies.

Abstract

Corrosion flaws in pipelines can caused severe financial losses and also can be dangerous for people. One of the most frequently damaged parts are dissimilar pipe welds. We would like to understand how corrosion process reacts on corrosion product removal. Outputs from experiment will be used for production of test specimens. For testing we chose standard dissimilar weldment used in Czech power plants. It is joint with 08Ch18N10T and 22K (GOST) steel. Joint is cut to 24 same specimens. There are exposed to flowing water solution of 5% NaCl. Half of the specimens are regularly mechanically cleaned. The joint is metallographically observed and parts with and without corrosion products are compared. Water salt solution increased pH from 7,25 to 7,86 during 31 days test and conductivity varies around 74 mS cm−1. Metallographic observation indicates that corrosion under corrosion products layer is locally speed up and causes pitting corrosion. Cleaned specimens indicate plane corrosion with lower depth. These results indicate that slag in pipeline could locally speed up corrosion depth penetration. On the other hand, solutions with abrasive particles (which can wipe out the corrosion product) will probably facilitate plane corrosion damage on pipeline walls. This test brings us another knowledge, how to simulate realistic corrosion damage for production of NDT qualification test pieces.

Abstract

The soil is a key component of natural ecosystems because environmental sustainability depends largely on a sustainable soil ecosystem. The objective of this study was to predict the impact of selected toxic compounds from dumpsite or contaminated soils on human health at the molecular level of biological processes. The in silico methods that were used include toxicokinetics and target gene prediction, molecular docking, and gene expressing network analysis. The result showed bisphenol A (BPA), 2,20-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethane (DDD), 2,20-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1-trichloroethane (DDT), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), nonylphenol (NP) and tetrachlorodibenzodioxin (TCDD) as the active toxic compounds that can modulate biological system and are considered as potential cause of several diseases including cancer. The principal target genes include substance-P receptor (also known as Neurokinin 1 receptor), 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor, human serotonin transporter; estrogen receptor alpha; and aryl hydrocarbon receptor. These genes implicated SUZ12, STAT3, and TRIM28 as the major transcription factors while mitogen-activated protein kinases and cyclin-dependent kinases were the major kinases from the protein-protein interaction. All the six toxicants investigated showed good free binding energies (ΔG) which were below - 5.0 kcal.mol−1. These toxic compounds showed ligand efficiency greater than 0.25 kcal.mol−1. HA and would possibly cause fatal damage on human health. The order of in silico predicted toxicity of these compounds were BPA > DDD = DDT > TCDD > NP > DEHP. Our results identified potential threats, which the selected toxicants can pose to public health. More importantly, it provides basis for investigation of super bugs (microorganisms) that can remediate these toxicants in our environment. Environmental monitoring and modern wastes management system should be implemented and enforced in the affected countries in order to safeguard the health of the citizenry.

Abstract

Multiphase extraction (MPE) was applied as a developed, convenient and efficient method in separation of ephedrine from Pinellia ternata. Firstly, in order to increase the adsorption efficiency, bionic liquid-modified polymer was created. Comparing the effects of all sorbents under variables conditions, the highest amount of 5.8 mg/g can be adsorbed on dual imidazole ionic liquid modified polymer (Im-Im-Poly) in methanol/water (70:30, v/v) solution at 25°C within 30.0 min. Then the Im-Im-Poly was applied in MPE, after 7 times repetition of extraction, around 1.0 mg/g of ephedrine from Pinellia ternata was detected. After washing by water, ethanol and methanol, and elution by methanol/acetic acid (99.0:1.0, v/v), ephedrine was successfully separated.

Abstract

Novel complexes of Ru (III), Cu (II) and Au (III) (2–4) were prepared using 6-phenyl-2-thioxo-4-(trifluoromethyl)-1,2-dihydropyridine-3-carbonitrile (HL, 1) adopting either electrochemical or traditional chemical methods. The electrochemical method is preferred in the synthesis of the complexes than the chemical one because it affords pure products with higher yields in shorter reaction time. The novel thiopyridine complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, IR, 1H, 19F-NMR, TGA and DTA measurements. The antimicrobial activity evaluation revealed that the complex bearing copper metal 3 has nearly the same activity as the reference drug ciprofloxacin. Anti-inflammatory activity evaluation showed that complex 4 containing gold displayed anti-inflammatory activity higher than the reference drug celecoxib upon using carrageenan rat hind paw edema method.