The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of chemerin, myeloperoxidase (MPO), fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21), thioredoxin reductase-1 (TrxR1), and matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) in acquired aortic valve (AoV) stenosis patients to determine correlations between the studied cellular factors, and also clarify the predictive values of these factors as biomarkers in AoV stenosis. AoV stenosis patients were classified into three groups: 17 patients with mild AoV stenosis; 19 with moderate and 15 with severe AoV stenosis. Twenty-four subjects without AoV stenosis were selected as a control group. Our findings suggest that AoV stenosis might be associated with increased chemerin, TrxR1, MPO, and FGF-21 levels in plasma. Moreover, these factors and also MMP-9 already reached statistically significantly elevated levels in the early stages of AoV stenosis, but MPO levels were more pronounced in patients with moderate and severe AoV stenosis. Chemerin was correlated with all of the studied cytokines; TrxR1 and MMP-9 were correlated with several other cellular factors. Our findings (by ROC analysis) suggest that MPO and chemerin might serve as specific and sensitive biomarkers for AoV stenosis without grading the severity, but, in relation to mild AoV stenosis, TrxR1, FGF-21, and MMP-9 also reached good or moderate levels as biomarkers. The cellular factors might serve as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in AoV stenosis patients, while chemerin and MPO may be more powerful.