My paper presents the results of a research study on the relationship between existential/spiritual resources, that is, spiritual sensitivity (a disposition to experience spirituality, manifested in the embracement of the nature of things in the transcendent and final perspective, in moral sensitivity, and the ability to find meaning in paradoxical and limiting situations), spiritual sensitivity components and subjective quality of life (a generalized attitude to one’s own life mode, in the four existential dimensions: psychophysical, psycho-social, subjective, and metaphysical). Study subjects were older adults (60+, n = 522) living in the current, dynamic, uncertain and fluid modern world conditions. The study had two phases – quantitative and qualitative (narrative interviews). To measure the phenomena, the Spiritual Sensitivity Inventory (Straś-Romanowska, Kowal, & Kapała, 2013) and the Quality of Life Questionnaire (Straś-Romanowska, Oleszkowicz, & Frąckowiak, 2004) were used. The results obtained confirmed a strong mutual relationship between spiritual resources and quality of life, also providing an answer to some questions about the nature of spiritual sensitivity, and its integrating, pro-development and pro-health role in the elderly adults’ life in the post-modern era.
Our study attempts to assess the validity of a modification of the Luyckx, Schwartz, Berzonsky, Soenens, Vansteenkiste, Smits and Goossens’ dual-cycle model of identity formation (2008). The model has been extended to include a six dimensions because it takes two types of ruminative exploration into account. Thus, the model consists of reflective exploration in breadth, ruminative exploration in breadth and commitment making, which form a commitment formation cycle, and reflective exploration in depth, ruminative exploration in depth and identification with commitment, which in turn form a commitment evaluation cycle. Six hundred and forty-two Caucasian Poles (including 51 early adolescents, 270 late adolescents, 272 emerging adults and 49 young adults; 66% women) participated in our study. Confirmatory factor analysis and correlation analysis between identity dimensions indicate that the proposed model has a satisfactory internal validity. Analysis of variance in groups with different educational-professional contexts and ages, as well as correlation analysis of the identity dimensions with adjustment indicators, and ruminative and reflective self-consciousness show a satisfactory external validity. In summary, the proposed modification may present an alternative to the original model, but its limitations will also be discussed.
Our study evaluated the residential environment quality among residents of both traditional open communities and gated communities (fenced), with the latter becoming increasingly popular in Poland. For this purpose the Perceived Evaluation of Residential Environment Quality and Place Attachment Questionnaire (Dębek, Janda-Dębek, 2015) was used, which is a Polish adaptation of Abbreviated Perceived Residential Environment Quality & Neighborhood Attachment Indicators (APREQ & NA, Bonaiuto, Bonnes, Fornara, 2010). Sixty residents of two Wrocław communities (open and gated) were examined. Our study revealed that residents of the open community evaluate their residential environment better and they are more attached to it than residents of the gated community.
Our paper analyses sources of job satisfaction. A cross-sectional study in two variants: an online questionnaire (n=642) and its paper version (n=635), were used to measure the impact of core self-evaluations, hedonism and eudaimonism on job satisfaction. To strengthen the dependent variable (job satisfaction) measurement, two sources for this data were used: the target person’s self-assessment and his or her significant other’s evaluation. The results show that the significant other’s assessment can be a valuable source of information on the target person’s job satisfaction. On top of that, hierarchical regression has shown that both happiness philosophies: eudaimonism and hedonism have predictive power over the assessment of job satisfaction based on core self-evaluations.
Shopping malls and shopping streets are environments frequented by millions of people daily. Malls are purposively built and strictly managed, whereas streets are evolving more spontaneously. Are these different but popular retail environments, out there to meet human needs, a like fit for all of us? Do all of us perceive them in the same way? Do we all feel just as good in them? Use them just as often and enthusiastically? We have set our research in a theoretical frame using one of the key concepts – describing the person-environment fit (P-EF) understood as a mental state giving rise to subsequent positive or negative states or behaviors. We assumed that the possible correlates of P-EF would be the person’s personality, temperament, and their system of values. Our cross-sectional correlational study involved 122 people aged 18 to 40. We found the match with retail environments to be influenced by subject traits, among them: consumption style, social affiliation need and openness to experience. Interestingly, it also turned out that the fit with retail environments is but ambiguously connected with hedonism co-variance, and that shopping streets can make for a fit no worse than malls.
Successful aging (Rowe & Kahn, 1997) is conditioned by aspiration to be active and by the ability to maintain social relations. Activity improves the emotional lives of seniors and is associated with a reduction of some symptoms of aging. Our study verifies if the number of activities (informal and solitary) is associated with quality of life and whether subjective age may be a mediator of this relationship. The 136 seniors above 60 were tested by our authorial scale of activity and the WHOQOL-BRIEF. The results showed that older persons’ higher quality of life levels are related not only to the number of activities undertaken, but also to the frequency that these activities are engaged in. The mediating role of subjective age in relation to one’s activities and quality of life was also indicated, which, concerning general quality of life, turned out to be a cooperative suppression.
Alina Żurek, Agnieszka Pirogowicz-Hirnle and Nina Chrobot
Bronchial asthma is the most frequent chronic pulmonary disorder in the world. Population studies indicate about 10% of children in Poland suffer from it. Nowadays, the illness is mild and rarely severe due to specialized treatment. Regardless of how the illness develops, recurring asthma attacks can cause a person suffering from it to feel stigmatized, and result in tension and stress. When under stress, a sick person activates their own characteristic coping strategies, which help them to reduce discomfort. Our paper analyzes both the anxiety intensity levels experienced by children suffering from bronchial asthma and how they cope. Seventy-one children diagnosed with chronic respiratory condition, aged 12–15, were examined during their sanatorium treatment, using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory for Children (STAIC) by Spielberger, adapted by Sosnowski, Iwaniszczuk, and Spielberger, and the Jak Sobie Radzisz? (How Are You Coping? – HAYC) Scale by Juczyński and Ogińska-Bulik. Thirty-eight per cent of the examined children had a high anxiety level, and 33% were diagnosed with a high anxiety-as-a-trait level. The results show significant differences between boys and girls on the anxiety trait scale, focusing on emotions strategy and seeking social support strategy. Girls have higher results on the above-mentioned scales. It was observed in the whole group of examined children that there is a statistically significant positive interrelationship between anxiety-trait results and focusing-on-emotions strategy in a dispositional stress-coping style. It is recommended to include psychotherapeutic assistance for children in standard bronchial asthma treatment.
Our thesis explores the experience of corporeality by women who practice aikido. The categories used by those women to describe their body self and its functions were analyzed. In order to explore the subject, quality research was implemented in the framework of grounded theory. Five women comprised the research group, all of whom had been practicing Birankai Aikido for nine or more years. Semi-structured interviews were carried out. Each interview contained five areas referring to practicing aikido, corporality, behavior and the connection between practicing aikido and corporality. Three areas emerged referring to the corporality construct, namely the body, emotions, and interpersonal contacts. The fields of the body and emotions were dominated by a functional dimension, whereas in the field of interpersonal contacts we noted a particularly strong feeling of group affiliation. Participants also displayed a strong need for self-realization, self-control, and persistence. The data collected give sufficient grounds for arguing that women who practice aikido on a regular basis tend to focus on the functional aspects of their bodies and emotions. In so doing they seem to motivate themselves to achieving greater self-realization in the process of studying martial arts.
The profession of a physical therapist is among so-called social professions, which are particularly exposed to high risks of burnout. Our paper analyzes the relationships between professional burnout in physical therapists and their perceived levels of stress, the strategies they use to cope with stress, as well as their levels of empathy and professional satisfaction. The following questionnaires were used in the study: the Burnout Scale Inventory (Okła & Steuden, 1998); the multidimensional coping inventory COPE (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989); and the Questionnaire Measure of Emotional Empathy (Mehrabian & Epstein, 1972). Varying levels of professional burnout were observed in a sample of 76 physical therapists, who demonstrated no significant relationships between burnout and empathy levels. Higher burnout levels were found in participants working in public compared to privately-owned health centers, while those scoring higher on job satisfaction also had lower burnout results. Further, participants with higher professional burnout also reported higher levels of stress at the workplace and at home, as well as using avoidance coping strategies. The results of our study call for further investigation into the determinants of burnout in physical therapists and for implementing preventive measures.