Some important modern problems of the transport engineering, which occur in the newly built and modernised road objects, have been indicated in the work. A discussion was conducted regarding the methods of assessing the stability of slopes of the road embankments, the obtained stability margins and the interpretation of obtained results in the specific cases of foundations of the road earth structures. Presented observations result from analysing the stability assessments of slopes of the road embankments, which was conducted on many communication objects, characterised by high variability of foundation conditions.
The problem is a continuation of the research conducted at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Institute of Building Engineering. It concerns the development of methods for the interpretation of the shear modulus measurements based on the tests conducted on a torsional shear (TS) apparatus. The issue has significant importance in determining the deformation parameters, essential to perform numerical simulations of the interaction between a geotechnical structure and the subsoil. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the various methods of interpretation of research results based on direct and reverse analysis, as well as automated classification of the first cycle of the relationship between the shear stress and the shear strain components obtained from the TS test. The methodology for verification of the presented interpretative methods consists in carrying out a series of laboratory tests on non-cohesive and cohesive samples of different granulation and state parameters. The course of the research includes the following steps: elaboration of the granulometric composition of several samples of soil, determination of soil index properties and execution of TS tests. Various methods of interpretation of obtained results were taken into account, in addition to conducting a comparative analysis. The study used a non-standard interpretation approach consisting of analysing one-fourth of the hysteresis loop of the first load–unload cycle of the tested samples. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to estimate the degradation value of the shear modulus based on a part of the TS test results carried out under quasi-monotonic load conditions. The proposed methods of interpreting test results have confirmed their high usefulness, which is devoid of the uncertainty associated with standardised resonant column/TS testing.
Francesco Cafaro, Emanuele Miticocchio and Valentina Marzulli
Scale modelling should be a very useful strategy for the design of lunar structures. Preventing structural damages in the lunar environment is crucial and scale models are helpful to achieve this aim. The size of these models must be scaled to take into account the different gravitational levels. Since the lunar gravity acceleration is about one-sixth of the terrestrial one, it follows that the models on Earth will be very smaller than the prototype to be realized on the Moon. This strategy will represent an opportunity for engineers working on lunar structure design, provided that the errors, both computational and experimental, related to the change of scale are quantified, allowing reliable extension of the physical scale modelling results to the prototype. In this work, a three-dimensional finite element analysis of walls retaining lunar regolith backfill is described and discussed, in order to provide preliminary results, which can guide a future experimental investigation based on physical scale-modelling. In particular, computational errors related to the scale effects are assessed, with respect to a virtual prototype of the lunar geotechnical structure, and compared with errors from other sources of discrepancy, like the adopted constitutive model, the variability of the geotechnical parameters and the calculation section used in the 3D analysis. The results seem to suggest the soundness of this strategy of modelling and are likely to encourage new research, both numerical and experimental, supporting the structure serviceability assessment.
In the study described here model calibration was performed employing the inverse analysis using genetic algorithms (GA). The objective of analysis is to determine value of the coefficient of hydraulic conductivity, k. The commonly used method for the determination of coefficient of hydraulic conductivity based on Terzaghi consolidation leads to an underestimation of the value of k as the Terzaghi model does not take into account the deformation of soil skeleton. Here, an alternative methodology based on genetic algorithms is presented for the determination of the basic parameters of Biot consolidation model. It has been demonstrated that genetic algorithms are a highly effective tool enabling automatic calibration based on simple rules. The values of the coefficient of hydraulic conductivity obtained with GA are of at least one order smaller than values obtained with the Terzaghi model.
This paper discusses the issues associated with the influence of underground mining operations on sewage pipelines built using the pipe jacking method. At present, to build sewage pipelines, especially in urban areas and deep embedment, trenchless technologies are employed. Mainly in these technologies, pipes are jacked into a bored tunnel using hydraulic jacks. These methods are also applied in mining areas.
The aim of this paper is to analyse the influence of ground deformation, caused by mining operations, on sewage pipelines built using the pipe jacking method. The type of pipelines discussed here is built with butted sections, which cannot compensate the influences of mining operations in pipe joints if horizontal compression occurs in the near-surface layer of soil. Pipelines embedded in trenches in the mining areas are secured against the influence of mining operations with expansion joints, which compensate for ground deformation. Hence, in the analysis of the influence of soil deformation caused by mining on sewage pipelines built using jacking method, special attention was paid to the performance of pipe joints. Pipelines of the type are subjected to additional loads and displacements, caused by soil deformations like horizontal strains, horizontal soil displacements and surface curvatures. We propose a way to consider the influence of mining operations on sewage pipelines built using the pipe jacking method.
Joanna Hydzik-Wiśniewska, Anna Wilk, Łukasz Bednarek and Sebastian OIesiak
One of the most important elements of road construction is its substructure, which constitutes the base on which the next layers of road are placed. Mixture of crushed-stone aggregate is very often used as material for substructure. The most frequently used type of aggregate is magma rocks, due to its good physical-mechanical properties. However, it is not always available, so it is substituted by sandstone or even concrete rubble aggregates. The bearing ratio CBR is a parameter determining the suitability of a certain aggregate for road substructure. It is also one of the most popular quality tests of aggregate as it does not require complex apparatus. This paper analyses the results of physical and geotechnical tests with particular focus on CBR bearing ratio of crushed aggregates and their application as substructure for road construction. There has also been an attempt to find the correlation between CBR bearing ratio and other physical and geometrical properties.
Janina Zaczek-Peplinska and Katarzyna Osińska-Skotak
Dynamically developing terrestrial laser scanning technology (TLS)provides modern surveying tools, that is, scanning total stations and laser scanners. Owing to these instruments, periodic control surveys of concrete dams were performed as a part of geodetic monitoring yield point models characterised by quasicontinuity. Using the results of such measurements as a base, one can carry out a number of geometric analyses as well as acquire information for detailed analytical and calculative considerations.
The scanner, similar to total station, by determining distances and angles, identifies spatial coordinates (X, Y, Z) of the surveyed points. Registration of the reflected laser beam’s intensity value (Intensity) emitted by the scanner provides additional information on the surveyed object. Owing to high working speed and the large amount of the collected data, the scanners became an indispensable tool for geodesists.
The article assesses the possibility of application of terrestrial laser scanning in surveying changes in the surface of a concrete dam based on the experimental measurements. The condition of the dam’s downstream concrete wall was evaluated. The evaluation included changes in the surface’s roughness, cracks, seepage points, erosion caused by plant overgrowth and the degressive durability parameter of the used material (concrete).
The article presents an example of the application of the results of a laser scan in the assessment of the condition of a water dam’s external concrete surfaces. The results of experimental measurements were analysed – the results of a scan of the downstream concrete wall of a dam in Ecker (Germany) using two laser scanners characterised by different technical parameters, that is, laser wavelength (laser’s colour), range, definable point density, method of distance measurement – Leica C10, Z+F Imager 5006h. The measurement was carried out in the same weather conditions from the same sites of the test base.
The results of the measurements were analysed using, inter alia, statistical methods by defining template fields and supervised and unsupervised classification methods in reference to the selected fragments of the surface characterised by known concrete surface properties. Various classification algorithms were used. The obtained results make it possible to assess the suitability of the proposed methodology of evaluating the concrete surface’s condition and establish tool selection principles to match the practical application requirements.
A three-dimensional finite element technique was used to analyse single pile lateral response subjected to pure lateral load. The main objective of this study is to assess the influence of the pile slenderness ratio on the lateral behaviour of single pile. The lateral single pile response in this assessment considered both lateral pile displacement and lateral soil resistance. As a result, modified p-y curves for lateral single pile response were improved when taking into account the influence lateral load magnitudes, pile cross sectional shape and flexural rigidity of the pile. The finite element method includes linear elastic, Mohr-Coulomb and 16-nodes interface models to represent the pile behaviour, soil performance and interface element, respectively. It can be concluded that the lateral pile deformation and lateral soil resistance because of the lateral load are always influenced by lateral load intensity and soil type as well as a pile slenderness ratio (L/D). The pile under an intermediate and large amount of loading (in case of cohesionless soil) has more resistance (low lateral displacement) than the pile embedded on the cohesion soil. In addition, it can be observed that the square-shaped pile is able to resist the load by about 30% more than the circular pile. On the other hand, pile in cohesionless soil was less affected by the change in EI compared with that in cohesive soil.
In this article, the stress–dilatancy relationship for crushed latite basalt is analysed by using Frictional State Theory. The relationship is bilinear, and the parameters α and β determine these two straight lines. At the initial stage of shearing, the mean normal stress increment mainly influences breakage, but at the advanced stage, it is shear deformation that influences breakage. At the advanced stage of shearing, the parameter αpt represents energy consumption because of breakage and βpt mainly represents changes in volume caused by breakage during shear. It is also shown that breakage effect is significant at small stress levels and the η-Dp plane is important to fully understand the stress–strain behaviour of crushed latite basalt in triaxial compression tests.
The article presents a comparison of the roadway supports currently used in mines in the Soma basin in Turkey with new one proposed by Huta Łabędy and Central Mining Institute (GIG) in terms of resistance parameters and work in conditions of specific loads. The strength analysis of the frame was carried out using the finite element method, using the COSMOS/M program, based on the methodology developed and applied in GIG.
The frame models were built corresponding to their geometry and cross-sectional parameters of the sections used. Beam elements (BEAM3D) were used for building models, which were given cross-sectional parameters of the V36 section. This resulted in three frame models that were loaded in three ways (three load variants). The first option included roof load, acting on the roof bar in a uniform manner, at a length of about 3.0 m. In the second variant, the same load was adopted but the resistance of the side wall was omitted. However, in the third variant, the same roof load was assumed in addition to a side load, acting on the sliding arch, at a length of about 3.0 m, a value corresponding to half the load of the roof. As a result of the calculations carried out, the distribution of reduced stresses in the analysed frames and the maximum load values were obtained.
The proposed roadway supports retain the functionality of the previously used frames in terms of width, height, cross-sectional area of the support and the number of elements. They are characterised by the same weight and at the same time, they have up to 24% more load capacity because of the replacement of straight sections of curved side sections. This treatment was possible by forming individual elements of the arch with two bending radii. The additional load increase was obtained by using S550W steel.