Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a DNA virus that infects the skin and mucous membranes of the human body. Approximately 80% of sexually active women are likely infected with HPV. Cervical cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors and is second in incidence only to breast cancer. Infection with high-risk HPV types is the main risk factor for cervical cancer, which is currently the only malignant tumor with a clearly defined etiology. HPV infection is also closely related to the incidence and development of other malignant tumors. In addition to cervical cancer, HPV can cause other urogenital tumors, as well as tumors in the digestive tract, lungs, eyes, skin, and other organ systems. This paper provides a review of the progress in HPV infection-related research and provides novel ideas for the study of tumor etiology and mechanisms.
This paper summarizes the characteristics and control of hospital-wide infections as identified by domestic surveys and research studies. This review also provides references to establish the basis for the control and management of hospital-acquired infection. Hospital-acquired infections are mainly initiated by Gram-negative bacteria and mainly localize in the lower respiratory tracts of patients. The intensive care unit has the highest infection rate among all hospital departments. Infants and the elderly are the most susceptible groups of patients to infection. Hands are an important route of pathogen transmission. The abuse of antibacterial drugs is an important factor of hospital-acquired infection. To control hospital-acquired infections, a sound management system should be established. In addition, medical staff, especially newcomers and interns, must receive strengthened training to improve their knowledge of hospital-acquired infection. Hand hygiene and the rational use of antibacterial drugs should be emphasized.
To summarize the advances in antibiotic therapy for infection after the surgical installation of implants to treat internal fractures. Recent studies on antibiotic therapy for infection after the surgical installation of implants to internal fractures were reviewed and analyzed. In general, systematic antibiotics are selected based on the results of bacterial culture. The duration of antibiotic treatment lasts for no more than 4 to 6 weeks. Orally administered and intravenously injected antibiotics have similar efficacies. Orally administered antibiotics exhibit a lower incidence of complications and are less costly than intravenously injected antibiotics. In addition, the efficacy of daptomycin in the treatment of bone infection is problematic. Rifampicin or fluoroquinolone antibiotics should be jointly administered when infection with bacterial biofilms is likely to occur. Calcium sulfate is a typical topically applied antibiotic delivery vehicle that can be completely degraded, with good biocompatibility, bone conduction, and drug release. The rational, systematic, and combined topical application of antibiotics can effectively decrease the recurrence rates of infection after the surgical installation of implants to treat internal fractures and can improve the quality of life of patients.
Regulatory T cells (Treg cells) are a group of negative regulatory cells that include non-specific immune regulation CD4+ T cells. Treg cells inhibit the function of other immune cells. CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ is a Treg cell that is co-expressed by CD25 and FOXP3. The expression of Treg cells is up-regulated in the focal microenvironment and peripheral blood of patients infected with human papilloma virus (HPV). Further studies on Treg cells indicate that their potential clinical applications in the treatment of HPV infection.
This article provides a review of the causes of respiratory tract infection after abdominal surgery. These causes include general anesthesia, intubation factors, factors inherent to the patient, surgical factors, the injudicious use of antimicrobial agents, and the environmental factors of the ward. The perioperative management of the respiratory tract should be strengthened. Health education, respiratory function training, oral nursing intervention, atomization inhalation, and personalized expectoration methods should receive more attention to decrease the complications and promote the early rehabilitation of patients after abdominal surgery.
Post-stroke infection hinders the recovery of stroke patients and can even cause death. The main mechanism of post-stroke infection is related with the post-stroke center, the activation of the peripheral immune system, and the release of inflammatory factors caused by the lesion area and pathophysiological changes in the body. Therefore, elucidating the body’s abnormal immune inflammatory responses after stroke is crucial for the prevention, treatment, and alleviation of post-stroke infection.
Surgical treatment can decrease the pain burden of patients, as well as improve their quality of life and social satisfaction. However, postoperative infection and other complications may harm patients and may even cause surgical failure and death. This review describes the definition, classification, and status of surgical site infection (SSI). In addition, this review provides an analysis of the relevant risk factors that result in SSI, and proposes the corresponding preventative and control measures for each different risk factor.
Psoriasis is a common clinical disease, and its pathogenesis is closely related to infecting microorganisms. Studies in recent years indicated that Malassezia plays an important role in occurrence and development of psoriasis. This study provides an overview on the role of Malassezia in development of psoriasis based on three aspects, namely, clinical observation, antifungal therapy, and immunology research.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are transmitted through the same pathways. Therefore, the incidence of HBV in the HIV-infected population is higher than that in the healthy population, and is more obvious in China given the high HBV prevalence in the country. HIV and HBV co-infection can accelerate the disease process of HBV. Moreover, the incidence of cirrhosis and end-stage liver disease is higher in patients co-infected with HIV and HBV than in patients infected HBV alone. When treating patients co-infected with HIV and HBV for HBV infection alone, care should be taken to avoid the induction of HIV resistance. HBV should be considered during drug selection for anti-retroviral treatment. Furthermore, the effective HBV treatment should be retained if anti-retroviral drugs require changing.
Chronic pelvic inflammatory disease is a highly common gynecological disease. It is often caused by the failure to completely treat acute pelvic inflammatory disease or persistent disease due to the poor physique of patients. This paper provides a summary of the recent research studies on chronic pelvic inflammatory disease.