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The effect of smartphone usage on the upper extremity performance among Saudi Youth, KSA

Abstract

The current study aims to investigate the effect of smartphone usage on the upper extremity performance among Saudi youth. A goniometer to measure the Range of Motion (ROM), the Smartphone Addiction Scale (SAS), McGill Pain scale and Chattanooga stabilizer were used to perform the current study on a sample of 300 university students from Al-Imam Mohammed Bin Saud University. The results have shown that smartphone addiction is negatively correlated to the elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, and both shoulder internal and external rotation. Furthermore, the results have shown that McGill pain scores were positively correlated to elbow flexion, shoulder flexion, shoulder extension, shoulder abduction, shoulder adduction, and both shoulder internal and external rotation. The study has concluded that smartphone usage among Saudi youth negatively affects the upper extremity and causes a significant increase in the pain intensity. The study has recommended that there is an urgent need for a significant awareness campaign to warn the community regarding the impact of using smartphones for long periods of time.

Open access
Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma – literature review and case series

Abstract

Juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a rare benign tumour of vascular origin found in adolescent males, originating around the sphenopalatine foramen. Although the exact pathogenesis of the tumour is not yet known, natural history and growth patterns can be predicted. JNA progressively involves the nasopharynx, nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, pterygopalatine fossa, infratemporal fossa and, in severe cases, an orbital or intracranial extension can be seen. Early diagnosis based on clinical examination and imaging is mandatory to ensure the best resectability of the tumour, as small to moderate tumours can be managed exclusively endoscopically. Preoperative angiography can reveal the vascular sources and allow embolization to prevent significant bleeding. We present a brief literature review followed by our case series of endoscopic removal of 7 juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibromas.

Open access
Multicentric study on the efficacy and tolerability of Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB and Streptococcus oralis 89a in respiratory tract infections

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Bacteriocins are peptides with antimicrobial efficacy produced by certain bacterial species. Probiotics indeed seem a promising method in the prevention of upper respiratory infections and our study would like to contribute to the results available in the literature, in order to underlie their true therapeutic potential role.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. Our multicenter pilot prospective study investigates 366 patients from September 2015 to February 2016. All the patients were treated with a topical device made up of a suspension of two specific bacterial strains: Streptococcus salivarius 24SMB and Streptococcus oralis 89a to be administered as nasal spray. The nasal spray was administered twice daily for 7 days per month for three consecutive months. A questionnaire about the subjective efficacy of the therapy correlated to an improvement of symptoms was also collected from patients.

RESULTS. After one year from the enrolment, a 70.07% reduction in the number of events compared with the number of expected episodes was observed.

CONCLUSION. The aim of our data is to propose a new therapeutic approach to treat the recurrence of upper airway infection and to support an adequate therapy in all cases where the traditional antibiotic therapeutic protocol did not obtain completely efficient results in terms of recurrence.

Open access
Odontogenic suppurative rhinosinusitis with oculo-orbital and cerebral complications - case series

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Odontogenic rhinosinusal suppurations have a high potential for major ocular-orbital and cerebral complications because of the presence of anaerobic bacteria flora, with continuity, contiguity and haematogenous propagation mechanisms. This pathology is often diagnosed in other departments than ENT such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery or OMF surgery.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We present three clinical cases of odontogenic rhinosinusal suppurations with major complications: a 36-year-old patient with odontogenic pansinusitis complicated with orbital phlegmon and cerebral frontal lobe abscess; a 19-year-old patient with complicated maxillary-ethmoidal-frontal sinusitis complicated with frontal subdural empyema and frontal bone osteomyelitis (with a history of craniofacial trauma one year before); a 66-year-old patient with odontogenic maxillary-ethmoidal sinusitis complicated with orbital apex syndrome.

RESULTS. The treatment was surgical, by external approach, with endoscopic nasal control, in interdisciplinary teams. We have associated massive antibiotic therapy. Surgical drainage for complicated rhinosinusitis should be done in emergency, within the first 24 hours after admission, according to guidelines. The bacteriological examination for aerobic and anaerobic flora can guide the diagnosis - two cases associated maxillo-ethmoidal aspergilloma lesions. The evolution of the cases was favourable.

CONCLUSION. Interdisciplinary teams have successfully solved these complicated odontogenic rhinosinusal suppurations. Two of the cases were admitted and cured within 2 weeks, in the context of very hot weather, which exacerbated dormant dental infections.

Open access
The presence of aeroallergens in food products: a potential risk for the patient with allergic rhinitis

Abstract

Clinical entities of food allergy in allergic rhinitis patients due to IgE-sensitization to cross-reactive aeroallergen and food allergen components are well described, but less data are available regarding allergic reactions to foods containing aeroallergens, either due to food contamination, such as oral mite anaphylaxis, or due to their natural presence in the edible products, such as pollen grains in honey and bee products. There are some potential risks for allergic rhinitis subjects due to ingestion of food products containing domestic mite, insect, fungal and pollen allergens. The knowledge of these risks is useful for the allergists and ENT specialists, especially in the context of climate changes with warmer periods facilitating mite growth in flours, and of increase use of phytotherapy and apitherapy products containing pollen grains.

Open access
Endoscopic endonasal resection of a nasal meningoencephalocele - Case report

Abstract

Nasal meningoencephaloceles are rare findings, represented by protrusions of intracranial contents into the nasal cavity. They present as unilateral masses, and commonly determine unilateral nasal obstruction, rhinorrhea and non-characteristic headaches.

We present the case of a 34-year-old patient diagnosed with a posttraumatic transethmoidal meningoencephalocele. The patient presented with unilateral nasal obstruction, mild headache and episodic watery rhinorrhea. The treatment was endoscopic endonasal surgical excision and repair of the skull base defect, in a mixt ENT-neurosurgical team. Patient follow-up showed no remaining mass or symptoms and normal closure of the skull base defect.

Open access
Epistaxis management - our point of view and literature review

Abstract

Nasal haemorrhage or epistaxis is the most common otolaryngologic emergency. It affects about 60% of the population and a percentage of 6% do not cease spontaneously, medical approach being needed.

The management of epistaxis varies depending on its severity and etiology. The therapeutic conduct of this ENT emergency is based on three main principles: 1. local haemostasis; 2. detection and ceasing of the cause; 3. evaluation and correction of hypovolemia if necessary. Haemostasis can be done by chemical or electric cauterisation after identifying the bleeding source, by nasal packing, by endoscopic or external surgery or, in special cases, when none of the above methods returns any results, embolization. The current paper emphasizes our experience and a brief literature concerning epistaxis management in patients presented in the Emergency Room, in chronic cases of vascular intranasal tumors with recurrent bleeding, in iatrogenic haemorrhages, and none of the least we will bring into discussion the treatment applied for patients diagnosed with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia.

Open access
Otologic symptomatology associated with the temporomandibular joint disorder

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Functional connection between the stomatognathic system and the acoustic-vestibular apparatus is approached with interest in topical studies, in an attempt to elucidate in depth the cause-effect relationship between pathology and symptom. The temporomandibular joint disorder may be accompanied by a series of otological symptoms such as otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo. For this reason, for a correct diagnosis, a complex clinical examination is required both on the acousticvestibular analyzer and on neighbouring structures.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We conducted a clinical study, on a group of 97 patients diagnosed with temporomandibular joint disorder (TMJD) and treated for this pathology. All patients included in the study were evaluated by the dentist and the ENT specialist. The patients were treated at the dental clinic and then returned to the ENT clinic two months after completion of the treatment for re-examination, recording changes in otologic symptoms in order to obtain the results of the study.

RESULTS. Of the 97 patients with TMJD, 58 also associated otic symptomatology (otalgia – 74.13%, tinnitus – 53.45%, vertigo – 43.10%). The evaluation done two months after treatment of the temporomandibular joint disorder revealed a significant remission of otalgia (decrease in Mean VAS from 6.05 to 2.49), followed by vertigo (from 5.08 to 2.52) and by tinnitus (from 4.84 to 3.84). Important changes also occurred in the results of the vestibular assessments.

CONCLUSION. The most common otological symptom of patients with TMJD is auricular pain. Otalgia, tinnitus and vertigo can be improved by dental treatment of the temporomandibular dysfunction, auricular pain having the highest rate of remission.

Open access
Primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma – Case report and literature review

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare tumor with a poor survival rate. There is an inherent difficulty in diagnosing these lesions, especially because their complex anatomic locations and symptoms can be frequently confused with other benign or malignant processes. The purpose of our study was to report a difficult case and review the literature and recent research on therapeutic modalities.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. We herein report a 61-year-old female patient, with a history of right eye enucleation and prosthesis, who presented with obstruction of the left nostril, anterior and posterior mucopurulent rhinorrhea, anosmia, left facial numbness, left exophthalmia accompanied by ipsilateral epiphora and decreased visual acuity.

RESULTS. Clinical and imagistic testing revealed a large, grayish, fleshy tumor localized in the left maxillary sinus, with extension to the left orbit (producing osteolysis of the inferior and medial orbital walls), nasopharynx, ethmoidal cells and left frontal sinus. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination confirmed the diagnosis of mucosal melanoma. Other primary sites were excluded. The patient succumbed shortly after, following only palliative treatment.

CONCLUSION. Early diagnosis of primary sinonasal mucosal melanoma is essential but very difficult to detect. Any symptoms such as unilateral epistaxis or nasal obstruction in a patient over the age of 60 should be rendered suspicious. Pathological and immunohistochemical examination for diagnosis and prognostic factors are important. Although surgery is the first option for treatment, one must consider, according to tumor staging, radiotherapy and chemotherapy with immunotherapy as a viable course of treatment for advanced cases.

Open access
Signal void and pseudo-pneumatized sinus in fungal rhinosinusitis – Case report

Abstract

BACKGROUND. Signal void, or the absence of signal on MRI sequences, in the sinonasal region may be encountered in fungal rhinosinusitis cases with the aspect of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, leading to diagnostic errors.

CASE REPORT. We present the case of a 75-year-old woman referred to our clinic for complete and persistent right-sided nasal obstruction. The patient was evaluated using sinus CT and contrast-enhanced head MRI. Opacification of the right maxillary, ethmoid and frontal sinuses as well as of the right nasal fossa were seen on CT, with maxillary sinus expansion and osseous erosion. The MRI showed T2 signal void in the maxillary sinus with extension to the nasal fossa, creating the appearance of a pseudo-pneumatized sinus, and hyperintense signal in the ipsilateral anterior ethmoid and frontal sinuses. The patient underwent endoscopic sinus surgery. The dual imaging evaluation of the patient aided the preoperative differential diagnosis and choosing the surgical approach.

Open access