Kayode F. Oyedele, Sunday Oladele and Charles A. Emakpor
The Onigbedu limestone deposit was investigated using the aeromagnetic data, resistivity soundings and borings with the aim of characterizing the limestone deposit and estimating its reserves. The subsurface structural features and depth to basement were identified with the analysis of aeromagnetic data. Twenty nine boreholes were drilled for subsurface appraisal and correlation of the limestone deposit. Eighty nine Vertical Electrical Sounding (VES) were acquired using the Schlumberger array. The results showed NE-SW trending lineaments that segmented the limestone. Depth to basement varied from 144.2 m to 1090 m. The VES results showed four to six layers indicating the topsoil (7-315 Ωm), clay (2-25 Ωm), shale (6-31 Ωm), limestone (20-223 Ωm), sandstone (>200 Ωm) and sandy materials. The VES results correlated well with the lithological unit delineated from the borehole. The overburden thickness ranged from 3.3 m to 28 m, while the limestone thickness varies between 18.1 m and 48.3 m. The limestone reserve was estimated at 1.9 × 109 t. This study concluded that the study area had vast occurrence of the limestone deposits, which would be of economic importance, if exploited.
Cyril Okpoli, Michael Oladunjoye and Toluwaleke Ajayi
An integrated geophysical (involving two-dimensional [2D] electrical resistivity) and petrophysical study was conducted in the Precambrian Crystalline Basement area of Iwaro-oka Akoko, southwestern Nigeria. Five 2D resistivity profiles, both around the perimeters and inside the dump, were investigated with maximum lengths of 100 m. Results of the resistivity imaging delineated the leachate plumes as low-resistivity zones, with values ranging from 3 Ω m to 55 Ω m. The coefficient of permeability ranged from 4.33 × 10-6 to 7.82 × 10-3, and the average porosity ranged from 32 Ω m to 169 Ω m, thus indicating migration of leachate plume to the groundwater due to the high coefficient of permeability and the porosity.
There are eleven reservoirs in Ivana Gas Field and they are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones, developed in dominant clays and marls depositional sequences. Ika Gas Field is the only field in Adriatic with gas accumulated in carbonate rocks, which are the deepest reservoir of the total four reservoirs. A carbonate reservoir is defined with tectonical and erosional unconformity, which is placed between Mesozoic and Pliocene rocks. The three younger Ika reservoirs are composed of Pleistocene sands, silt sands and siltstones that are laminated into clays and marls. The goal of our study was to assess the ‘Probability Of Success’ (POS) of finding new gas accumulations within the marginal area of those two fields, either in the form of Mesozoic rocks or Pleistocene deposits. The assessment was successfully completed using the Microsoft Excel POS table for the analyzed areas in the Croatian part of the Po Depression, namely, Northern Adriatic. The methodology was derived and adapted from a similar POS calculation, which was originally used to calculate the geological probability of hydrocarbon discoveries in the Croatian part of the Pannonian Basin System (CPBS).
The banded iron ore mineralization at Ero was investigated using aeromagnetic, resistivity and induced polarization (IP) methods with the aim of characterizing the deposit. Analysis of the aeromagnetic data involved the application of reduced-to-equator transformation, derivative filters, analytic signal and source parameter imaging techniques. Computer modelling of some of the identified anomalies was undertaken. The electrical resistivity and IP methods helped in discriminating between the iron ore and the host rock. The results showed that the banded iron formations (BIFs) were characterized by spherical analytic signal anomalies ranging from 0.035 nT/m to 0.06 nT/m within the granite gneiss and magnetic susceptibility of 0.007-0.014 SI. The iron ore had low chargeability (0.1-5.0 msec) and resistivity (1.5 × 102 to 2.5 × 103 Ωm). Structural features trending in the NE-SW, E-W, and NW-SE were identified, suggesting that the area had undergone many episodes of tectonic events. Depth to the BIF varied from the surface up to about 200 m. The chargeability response of the iron bodies suggested an average grade of 20%-40%, making the prospect for economic exploitation attractive.
Oyelowo Bayowa, Gbenga Ogungbesan, Razak Majolagbe and Simeon Oyeleke
Ground magnetic and electrical resistivity survey were undertaken to investigate the occurrence and geometry of iron ore deposit around Tajimi village, Lokoja, North-Central Nigeria. The generated residual map of the ground-magnetic data acquired at 250 stations along 15 traverses revealed numerous prominent anomalies, mostly trending in the N-S direction. The radial power spectrum revealed the depth to magnetic sources between 6 m to 20 m. The interpreted VES data characterized the area into three subsurface layers: top soil, presumably iron ore layer and weathered/fresh basement. The result of vertical electrical sounding curves showed a sudden drop in resistivity (42-241 Ωm) over high magnetic response. The geo-electric section revealed that the study area is generally characterized with thin overburden (0.5-1.7 m) and the thickness of the second layer (presumed to be the iron ore layer) ranged between 6.2-25.1 m. The study concluded that areas of high magnetic intensity showed a sudden drop in resistivity value for the VES points, which give an indication of the presence of an electrically conductive structure presumed to be iron ore deposits.
A major challenge in most growing urban areas of developing countries, without a pre-existing land use plan is the sustainable and efficient management of solid wastes. Siting a landfill is a complicated task because of several environmental regulations. This challenge gives birth to the need to develop efficient strategies for the selection of proper waste disposal sites in accordance with all existing environmental regulations. This paper presents a knowledge-based multi-criteria decision analysis using GIS for the selection of suitable landfill site in Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria. In order to identify suitable sites for landfill, seven factors - land use/cover, geology, river, soil, slope, lineament and roads - were taken into consideration. Each factor was classified and ranked based on prior knowledge about the area and existing guidelines. Weights for each factor were determined through pair-wise comparison using Saaty’s 9 point scale and AHP. The integration of factors according to their weights using weighted index overlay analysis revealed that 39.23 km2 within the area was suitable to site a landfill. The resulting suitable area was classified as high suitability covering 6.47 km2 (16.49%), moderate suitability 25.48 km2 (64.95%) and low suitability 7.28 km2 (18.56%) based on their overall weights.
R.B. Adegbola, K.F. Oyedele, L. Adeoti and A.B. Adeloye
We present a method that utilizes multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW), which was used to measure shear wave velocities, with a view to establishing the probable causes of road failure, subsidence and weakening of structures in some local government areas in Lagos, Nigeria. MASW data were acquired using a 24-channel seismograph. The acquired data were processed and transformed into a two-dimensional (2-D) structure reflective of the depth and surface wave velocity distribution within a depth of 0–15 m beneath the surface using SURFSEIS software. The shear wave velocity data were compared with other geophysical/ borehole data that were acquired along the same profile. The comparison and correlation illustrate the accuracy and consistency of MASW-derived shear wave velocity profiles. Rigidity modulus and N-value were also generated. The study showed that the low velocity/ very low velocity data are reflective of organic clay/ peat materials and thus likely responsible for the failure, subsidence and weakening of structures within the study areas.
In accordance with the regulations of the Energy Agency of the Republic of Slovenia, each natural gas supplier regulates and determines the charges for the differences between the ordered (predicted) and the actually supplied quantities of natural gas. Yearly charges for these differences represent up to 2% of supplied natural gas costs. All the natural gas users, especially industry, have huge problems finding the proper method for efficient natural gas consumption prediction and, consequently, the decreasing of mentioned costs. In this study, prediction of the natural gas consumption in Štore Steel Ltd. (steel plant) is presented. On the basis of production data, several models for natural gas consumption have been developed using linear regression, genetic programming and artificial neural network methods. The genetic programming approach outperformed linear regression and artificial neural networks.
Design and modelling of raft foundations and selecting the value of coefficient of vertical subgrade reaction are still actively discussed topics in geotechnical and structural engineering. In everyday practice, soil–structure interaction is mostly taken into account by using the theory of ‘beam on elastic foundation’, in which the soil is substituted by a certain set of coefficients of subgrade reaction. In this study, finite element analysis of a building was performed using a geotechnical software (Plaxis 3D), which is capable of modelling the subsoil as a continuum, and a structural software (Axis VM), which uses the concept of ‘beam on elastic foundation’. The evaluation of the results and recommendations for everyday engineering practice are introduced in this paper.