In the Middle East and North Africa Jordan is considered as the top medical tourism due to the high level of medical specialized medical centers in the country. In Jordan Ministry of Health monitors, evaluate, enforces, and regulates requirements of medical waste management over medical waste instructions No. 1/2001. Al-Bashir Hospital is the largest hospital in Jordan. It is built on 156 acres and consists of 49 buildings and 80 departments. It has been reported that Al-Bashir Hospital has 1150 medical bed in 2019 and expected to increase to 1500. About 3200 employee and 1100 clean workers give the medical treatment and service for 7000 patient per day and 1.5 million patient per year. The present situation of medical waste management in Al-Bashir Hospital has many problems. The most important is the pressure imposed by heavy population around the incineration unit in the Hospital. Furthermore, the change from incineration to autoclave is faced by high cost of the autoclaves. The quantity of medical waste created by Al-Bashir Hospital is up to 703.8 ton which constitutes about 33% of the total medical waste in Jordan. The high cost of fuel resulted in wrong acts in Al-Bashir Hospital like mixing medical waste with household waste and incineration at lower temperature (about 600 °C). If the incineration unit in Al-Bashir Hospital is closed the expenses will range from US$ 400,000 to 2.5 million.
Bartosz Bogusławski, Anna Głowacka and Teresa Rucińska
The aim of the research was to determine changes in the elemental composition of concrete under the influence of exposure to hydrogen sulphide in the existing sewage system. The system operator pointed to significant problems with odours in this system. The research included a fragment of the pressure sewage system. The concentration of gases: hydrogen sulphide, ammonia and methane was measured in selected wells. High concentrations of hydrogen sulphide (over 200 ppm) were recorded in the studies. Concrete samples were taken from the internal walls of the well for testing. The samples were used for a microscopic analysis of their composition, using an electron microscope with an EDS attachment. Also, concrete samples from a new sewage well were tested to compare their elemental composition. Gas measurements confirmed the problem of odors, while the analysis of the elemental composition showed a significant proportion of sulphur (from 7.53% to 42.9%) on the surface of the well compared to the reference sample (0%).
The paper presents examples of installations for the mechanical and biological treatment of municipal waste in Poland. Each of the presented installations is defined as a regional municipal waste treatment installation (RIPOK). Their technological solutions and work efficiency have been compared in this study. In addition, the loss of waste mass as a result of processes occurring in the biological part of individual installations was calculated in the research. The paper refers to the National Waste Management Plan (KPGO 2022) regarding the circular economy. As intended by the circular economy, MBP installations will be transformed into installations that will treat selectively collected municipal waste and become Regional Recycling Centers (RCR).
Ahmed Mohsen, Rania Farouq, Hassan A. Farag and Mostapha Salem
In this study, an industrial fixed-bed for mercury adsorption from natural gas, was evaluated by mathematical models. Equilibrium isotherms, kinetics equations, and adsorption models were applied to available data to evaluate sorbent characteristics, and then study bed’s performance under different case studies. Models solutions are evaluated by linear-regression and coefficient of determination. The study confirmed that the system is characterized by irreversible equilibrium. Examining of kinetics equations indicated the inclusion of chemisorption and intra-particle diffusion as ratelimiting steps. Bohart-Adams model was found the best fitting model with good match between model’s assumptions and available bed’s information. Model prediction for bed’s design-basis was examined and found good match with manufacturer’s data-sheet.
Retrofit and structural design with vibration control devices have been proven repeatedly to be feasible seismic hazard mitigation approach. To control the structural response; supplemental energy dissipation devices have been most commonly used for energy absorption. The passive control system has been successfully incorporated in mid to high rise buildings as an appropriate energy absorbing system to suppress seismic and wind-induced excitation. The considerable theses that are highlighted include vibration control devices, the dynamic behavior of devices; energy dissipation mechanism, devices installation approach and building guidelines for structural analysis and design employing vibration control devices also, design concern that is specific to building with vibration control devices. The following four types of supplemental damping devices have been investigated in this review: metallic devices, friction devices, viscous fluid devices, and viscoelastic devices. Although numerous devices installation techniques available, more precisely, devices installation approaches have been reviewed in this paper, including Analysis and Redesign approach (Lavan A/R), standard placement approach, simplified sequential search algorithm, and Takewaki approach.
The supplemental energy dissipation system is a practical approach to attenuate the structural response under extreme loading. Viscoelastic damping used to reinforce the structure against the seismic vibration, Viscoelastic material (VEM) most commonly used in viscoelastic dampers (VEDs). In this paper, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) approach is used to investigate the performance index of VEM. It is demonstrated that the performance index, such as storage modulus, loss modulus, and loss factor decrease noticeably as the temperature increases, which reflects the low stiffness at high temperature. Excitation frequency also influenced the performance index, and the reaction has correspondence to temperature. As the temperature increases, the VEM dynamic properties decreases, which represents the rubbery region, and it is found that higher to low-temperature dynamic properties increases, which the glassy region is. DMA is a particularly flexible approach, and it characterizes the properties of VEM simultaneously at various conditions.
A constant growth of the multimaterial waste production can be observed in the recent years. The multimaterial waste that contain aluminum are especially hard to process due to the fact that multiple layers of various materials are bonded permanently. Tetra-Pak waste contain high amounts of paper (approx. 70%) and are usually processed in papermills in order to recover cellulose. The overview on the methods used to process waste as well as the characteristics of the produced waste are presented in the paper. The application of pyrolysis has many advantages: the products are characterized by a high calorific value and can be used as fuels, and the process itself is much more environmentally friendly than the chemical methods used currently. The tests were performed with a special focus on the minimization of the aluminum oxidation level, so that in can be further processed. In order to determine the decomposition temperature of the individual components of the examined materials, the tests started with a thermogravimetric analysis of the pyrolysis process performed with the application of argon. The next step were the pyrolysis tests on a laboratory scale installation aimed in the verification of the results obtained during the thermogravimetry.
The article presents physiochemical parameter changes in water supply network of Zielona Góra. On the basis of the obtained test results, the impact of prolonged retention of water in the network on its quality was determined, at the measuring points located on the territory of Zielona Góra.
It was shown that together with an increase in distance of measuring points from Water Treatment Plant, content of mainly iron, turbidity and colour increased too. In the results analysis, it was determined that retention time and water distribution are the most significant factors in the network contributing to deterioration of water quality at measuring points.
Andrzej Aniszewski, Rafał Ciepłuch and Norbert Laskowski
The paper contains a review of dimensionless experimental dependencies determining the coefficient of transverse dispersion Dy. In the course of the dimensional analysis, dimensionless experimental dependencies describing the dispersion of pollutants in groundwater with hydraulic and physical parameters of soil in the case of steady and uniform groundwater motion were presented. The analysis allowed the determination of dimensionless practical relationships defining the dispersion factor in the perpendicular direction to the main flow direction.
Łukasz Cieślikiewicz, Michał Wasik, Michał Kubiś, Piotr Łapka, Marcin Bugaj, Karol Pietrak, Tomasz S. Wiśniewski, Piotr Furmański and Mirosław Seredyński
The paper presents development of an experimental stand with centrally located specimen for the investigation of heating and drying processes in porous building materials. Additionally, the paper contains preliminary results of measurements which test and verify the assumed operation conditions of the stand. In order to control parameters of air which was used to heat and dry the specimen, the stand was operating in a closed loop and was equipped with several elements, i.e., the cooler (humidity condenser), fan with variable rotation speed, humidifier and heater. Moreover, the stand consisted of two square and parallel ducts with air streams which had identical parameters. This allowed for two measurements at the same time.