Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 2,685 items for :

  • Sports and Recreation, other x
Clear All
Open access

Piotr Tabor, Czesław Urbanik and Andrzej Mastalerz

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between the direction and velocity of the ball in volleyball spike. We adopted the hypothesis that the direction of an attack is dependent upon the arrangement of the pectoral girdles in the phase of flight.

Material and methods. The research was carried out for four different types of attacks: from the left side of the court down the line (A) and in the cross-court direction (B) and from the right side in the same directions (C and D). Sixteen young volleyball players from a Sports Championship School run by the Polish Volleyball Federation were examined.

Results. The analysis of the results showed different ball velocities in different attacks. The velocity was the lowest in attack B and the highest in attack D.

Conclusions. The direction of attack was produced by hitting the ball in a non-central manner and by aligning the glenohumeral joints diagonally to the net.

Open access

Bartłomiej Krynicki, Monika Guszkowska, Ewa Kozdroń, Ewa Niedzielska, Joanna Piotrowska and Anna Leś

Abstract

Introduction. We tested how female University of the Third Age (U3A) attendees evaluated their health, physical fitness, and satisfaction with health. We also examined various factors potentially underlying those self-assessments, that is objective indicators of health and physical fitness, their potential determinants (age and financial situation), and potential modifiers of self-assessment (mood, perceptive ability, and education).

Material and methods. A total of 116 female participants attending U3A classes in Warsaw aged 50-88 years evaluated their health and fitness on a 100-level visual scale and their satisfaction with their health on a five-level Likert scale. Each participant completed the UWIST mood adjective checklist (UMACL) by Matthews, Chamberlain, and Jones and Yesavage’s geriatric depression scale, underwent the Fullerton fitness test, a hand grip strength test, Romberg’s test, and Ciechanowicz and Stanczyk’s attention and perception test, as well as filling out a specially designed questionnaire.

Results. Self-assessments of health were found to correlate with aggravated symptoms of depression and certain components of physical fitness, but not with age or financial situation. Self-assessments of physical fitness, in turn, were strongly correlated with objective indicators of physical health and depression and less strongly with dexterity test results. General satisfaction levels, in turn, were found to be associated with long-term conditions, aggravated symptoms of depression, and financial situation.

Conclusions. Overall, our results confirm that self-assessments are a moderately accurate indicator of the general health and physical fitness of elderly people: they correlated to a certain degree with more objective indicators of health/fitness but were influenced by modifying factors, particularly cognitive ones.

Open access

Zoltan Marczinka and Andrea Gál

Abstract

A long, historical cooperation exists between sport and the media. The media can lift up the profile of a sport, and sport provides a marketable topic/product to talk about. Rules have been changed and playing conditions adapted to add to the glamor and spectacle of sport, thus making sport more marketable, enhancing media coverage and making it more appealing for the viewer. In the history of handball, rule changes have been introduced for the same purpose. However, changing the rules has a great effect on the team’s performance, and thus on the coaches’ work as well. There is no doubt that among the rule modifications introduced by the International Handball Federation (IHF) in 2016, substituting the goalkeeper for another court player during an attack without wearing a special shirt has had the greatest impact on the game in recent times. The main aim of the study was to carry out empirical research in order to analyze the recent rule modifications by the IHF, particularly when substituting the goalkeeper for an extra court player during an attack. The 2017 World Championship in France provided an ideal opportunity to collate data in order to explore how often and effectively teams used this rule change at the latest world event. In addition, we have also sought out the opinions of elite coaches concerning the state of current rules in handball and what they would change in order to make this sport discipline more marketable for the media and for spectators. The results show that teams substituted their goalkeeper for an extra court player when in numerical inferiority on average twice as much as when in numerical superiority and on average twice as often when losing as when winning. Surprisingly, the teams’ average scoring effectiveness was a little bit higher than when they played in numerical superiority or with an evenly reduced number of players. In addition, the outcome of focus group interviews shows that most coaches think that measuring the attacking time, introducing the third referee into the game, and having better judgment concerning the fast start-off is necessary for the betterment of the game.

Open access

Samuel Keith Duncan

Abstract

Using a combined Huizingian-Bourdieu framework, this paper analyses the significance of sport’s transformation into a business and how the prevailing business structure that defines professional sport has influenced the ‘lived experience’ of those playing at sport’s elite level. Furthermore, this paper highlights how the actions of players, coaches and other participants serve to reinforce, legitimise and normalise the business characteristics of sport’s dominant business structure.

Importantly, this paper illuminates how the professionalization of sport corrupts the act of playing and indeed gives rise to play tactics, such as ‘sledging’, which both reflects the increased seriousness of sport and, in its very execution, further reinforces the dominant business structures of professional sport, all the while corrupting the essence of sport – play.

In doing so we are challenged to consider how society’s fields could be different in structure, and in the ‘lived experience’ within the field.

Open access

Krzysztof Lipecki

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to identify differences in the level of fitness and technical skills of young soccer players depending on age.

Material and methods. The study examined 140 male elite soccer players from the Polish Sport Academy aged 12 to 18 years. Body mass, body height, fitness abilities (5-m, 10-m, and 30-m sprint; envelope run; standing long jump; pull-ups; and beep test) and technical skills (ball handling, juggling alternately with the leg and the head, short passes, and long passes) were measured.

Results. Statistically significant (p < 0.05) differences indicating improvement with age were found in older players in speed (15.5%-18.8%), agility (5.7%), lower limb explosive power (39.4%), upper limb strength (254.3%), and cardiorespiratory endurance (31.9%). With regards to technical skills, the greatest progress was documented for long shots (passes) with the internal instep from the ground (140.6% for the dominant leg, DL, and 730.3% for the non-dominant leg, NDL). Slightly lower results were obtained for short shots (passes) with the central instep from the air (128% for DL and 103.6% for NDL) and short shots (passes) with the medial part of the foot (52.1% for DL and 82.8% for NDL), and the lowest were recorded for ball handling with direction change (32.3% for DL and 29.9% for NDL).

Conclusions. In the process of talent identification and monitoring of training effects, coaches should take into account the differences in the rate of the development of fitness and technical skills of young athletes.

Open access

Aleksandra Samełko, Monika Guszkowska and Anna Gala-Kwiatkowska

Abstract

Introduction. Sports activity involves experiencing affective states, which have a substantial effect on actions taken by the athlete. The results of previous studies on the relationship between emotional states and sport performance outcomes are ambiguous. The aim of the study was to establish the relationships between affective states (both emotional states and moods) and performance in swimming.

Material and methods. The study examined 9 female swimmers and 22 male swimmers competing at the national level aged from 15 to 23 years (M = 18.1; SD = 2.397). Affective states were evaluated by means of the Profile of Mood States (POMS) completed once a day before the competition and the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) completed before each race. The subject’s life record was divided by the time obtained in each race and expressed as a percentage.

Results. Immediately before the races where the best results were obtained, the swimmers experienced the strongest positive emotions and the lowest level of negative emotions. The lowest level of positive states was recorded before the races with the worst performance. The lower the level of negative moods (fatigue, depression, anger, and tension) and the higher the level of positive moods (vigour and kindness) were, the better the results obtained by swimmers were. One exception was confusion, which unexpectedly correlated positively with the swimmers’ results. Preliminary analyses showed no indication of statistically significant differences between the women and men surveyed.

Conclusions. The results of the study suggest that affective states influence performance outcomes in swimming. This influence may vary according to the valence and content as well as duration of affective states (emotional states vs. mood). On the basis of the results obtained, guidelines for coaches and their athletes can be formulated. A properly prepared trainer can choose training tasks in such a way as to optimise the intensity and content of the emotions experienced by athletes. Emotions seem to be important not only with regard to athletes’ well-being, but also as indirect and direct predictors of the results they achieve. Expression of emotion and emotional awareness in persons connected with sport should be included in training work.

Open access

Zerf Mohammed, Boras Fatima Zohar, Benali Gourar, Bengoua Ali and Mokkedes Moulay Idriss

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the Aerobic endurance training as indicators of physiological training status among male soccer players. A total of 138 well-trained first division soccer players under 18 years were tested. Testing was based on the Cooper test as a one of simple tests to estimate VO2max. BMI and BFP as valued anthropometric measurements to control body change relative to maximal oxygen consumption during dynamic exercise with large muscle groups benefit training time soccer training experience. Performance in this experience was based on the subjection that 60 ml/kg/min of VO2max is the minimum fitness requirement for male soccer players to play at the elite level. Admit in this study as a protocol to categorise our sample into two groups (up and under the range VO2max ± 60 ml/kg/min) and it was based on statistics applied and the design used. Our results highlighted the importance of aerobic performance up to 60 ml/kg/min as the minimum fitness requirement to enhance the players' aerobic capacity allied to maximal heart rate relative to BFP levels as a better parameter in comparison with BMI for the prediction of low VO2max concomitant to the physiological training status as requests soccer performance demand.

Open access

Silvia Priklerová

Abstract

The ability to perform the stable playing performance during the whole match to larger extent depends on sufficient level of development of conditioning abilities. Technique of playing activities of an individual, decision-making process of players and especially speed of the game are influenced by already mentioned abilities. The aim of our study was to recognize the level of motor performance in regional centres of handball and at the same time to verify the efficiency of sports preparation. This programme includes the change of weekly microcycle practice, consisting of 2 conditioning trainings focused on strength and endurance. The research was realized in these age categories: younger (n=40) and older juniors (n=38). To evaluate the level of motor abilities we selected 5 simply performed activities: bench press (explosive strength of upper extremities ), run for 8x5 metres (speed with change of direction), sit-ups for 2 minutes (power of abdominal muscles), standing long jump with legs together (explosive strength of lower extremities) and 12 minutes run (aerobic endurance). When following microcycle programme weekly, the results of motor test pointed out the positive influence of this programme on the development of strength and aerobic endurance (p≤0.05). In category of older juniors the performance in test of 12 minutes run has fallen significantly in comparison with the first testing (p≤0.05). The result of this study indicates the lack of recommended aerobic running practice in weekly microcycles of monitored teams.

Open access

Paulina Górska, Jana Krzysztoszek, Agata Korcz and Michał Bronikowski

Abstract

The interest in the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance is still considerable. However, more ad­vanced research is required to better understand this relationship. Therefore, the purpose of the current review is to describe the state of knowledge of the relationship between physical fitness and academic performance. Furthermore, this relationship is explored with reference to five components of physical fitness, asking which ones have the most beneficial effect on maintain­ing and improving learning outcomes. In this review, we emphasize studies that advance the understanding of this issue, which is still incomplete. These studies offer hope of deeper understanding of the type of selected physical fitness components and their impact on academic performance. Further research into the association between components of physical fitness such as flexibility, strength and endurance of muscles and academic performance in children, while controlling for important covari­ates, is needed.

Open access

Stanislav Kraček, Dagmar Nemček, Petra Kurková, Wioletta Lubkowska and Šimon Tomáš

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyse and compare the level of selected coordination abilities of pupils with communication ability disorder (CAD) and able-bodied pupils in the same age category. Two groups of participants were recruited for the study: (1) pupils attending special elementary school for children with CAD (n = 17; 5 girls and 12 boys in mean age 11.2 ± 0.7 years), (2) and ablebodied pupils (n = 20; 12 girls and 8 boys in mean age 11.4 ± 0.5 years) without gender differentiation. 5 standardised tests measuring coordination abilities were used as a primary research method (Šimonek 2015): low jump test, spatial orientation ability test, circles through running test, one leg stand test, catching ball test. Group differences were analysed with Mann-Whitney U-test for independent samples. The level of significance was α < 0.05. We found significantly higher level of spatial orientation ability and static balance displayed by able-bodied pupils comparing pupils with CAD. The level of lower limb kinaesthetic discrimination ability, rhythmic ability, frequency and reaction time in pupils with CAD are comparable to the level of able-bodied pupils. We recommend that children with CAD should participate in regular physical activities and sports after compulsory education together with able-bodied children to improve their fine and gross motor ability, coordination abilities as well as overall physical fitness.