It has long been considered that the environment can withstand all the pressure exerted by human activities on it: extensive agriculture, pesticide use, strong industrialization, noxious gas emissions into the atmosphere, toxic product discharge into lakes, rivers, seas and oceans, massive deforestation to obtain new areas for housing or agriculture. The result was environmental and soil degradation, increased water and/or air pollution, climate change, biodiversity loss, the disappearance of plant and/or animal species, the depletion of some natural resources. These environmental changes have begun to be studied by specialists in the field, who have raised a flag to irreversible environmental changes.
The concept of “sustainable development” arose at a time when environmental issues were at the heart of political debate: sustainable development is seen as a complex and difficult issue to solve because there is a diversity of interests of different states. International agreements and cooperation from the point of view of globalization and economic harmonization have also had as their object the issues of sustainable development, by launching the attempt to reconcile the economy with the environment.