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Open access

Turan Yaman, Hüseyin Büyükbayram, Zafer Özyıldız, Funda Terzi, Ahmet Uyar, Ömer Faruk Keles, Şule Yurdagül Özsoy and Zabit Yener

Abstract

Introduction

The aim of this study was to determine the predisposing effect of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) on Pasteurella spp. infection in naturally-induced pneumonia in cattle by immunohistochemical labelling.

Material and Methods

Lungs of cattle slaughtered in the slaughterhouse were examined macroscopically, and 100 pneumonic samples were taken. The samples were fixed in 10% neutral formalin and embedded in paraffin by routine methods. Sections 5 μm in thickness were cut. The streptavidin-peroxidase method (ABC) was used to stain the sections for immuno-histochemical examination.

Results

BRSV antigens were found in the cytoplasm of epithelial cells of bronchi, bronchioles, and alveoles and within inflammatory cell debris and inflammatory exudate in bronchial lumens. Pasteurella spp. antigens were detected in the cytoplasm of the epithelial cells of bronchi and bronchioles, and in cells in the lumens of bronchi and bronchioles. Eleven cases were positive for only one pathogen (six for BRSV and five for Pasteurella spp.), while 35 cases were positive for 2 pathogens: BRSV plus P. multocida (n = 21) or M. haemolytica (n = 14).

Conclusion

The presence of high levels of BRSV in dual infections indicates that BSRV may be the main pneumonia-inducing agent and an important predisposing factor for the formation of Pasteurella spp. infections in cattle naturally afflicted with pneumonia.

Open access

Sylwia Terpiłowska, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki

Abstract

Introduction

Iron and molybdenum are essential trace elements for cell metabolism. They are involved in maintaining proper functions of enzymes, cell proliferation, and metabolism of DNA.

Material and Methods

BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells were incubated with iron chloride or molybdenum trioxide at concentrations from 100 to 1,400 μM. The cells were also incubated in mixtures of iron chloride at 200 μM plus molybdenum trioxide at 1,000 μM or iron chloride at 1,000 μM plus molybdenum trioxide at 200 μM. Cell viability was determined with MTT reduction, LHD release, and NRU tests.

Results

A decrease in cell viability was observed after incubating both cell lines with iron chloride or molybdenum trioxide. In cells incubated with mixtures of these trace elements, a decrease in cell viability was observed, assessed by all the used assays.

Conclusion

Iron (III) and molybdenum (III) decrease cell viability in normal and cancer cells. A synergistic effect of the mixture of these elements was observed.

Open access

Anna Snarska, Dominika Wysocka, Liliana Rytel, Krystyna Makowska and Sławomir Gonkowski

Abstract

Introduction

Bisphenol A (BPA) is a substance widely used in industry for the production of polycarbonates and epoxy resins used in packaging and containers for beverages, contact lenses, compact discs (CDs), window panes, and many other elements. This compound belongs to the group of polyphenols and xenoestrogens commonly found in the human environment. What we know about BPA is still insufficient to enable us to protect our health against its adverse effects, and current knowledge of the influence of BPA on erythroblastic cell lines in bone marrow is rather fragmentary. The aim of the experiment was to assess the effect of two doses of BPA (0.05 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per day) on myeloid haematopoiesis.

Material and Methods

During this experiment, the number of all types of cells in the erythroblastic cell line was evaluated in porcine bone marrow before and after BPA administration.

Results

The obtained results clearly indicate changes in haematopoietic activity of the bone marrow, which was demonstrated by a decrease in erythroblastic cell line production in both experimental groups. The haematological effects of the bone marrow changes were anaemia, caused by a number of erythrocytes which was depressed due to their immaturity, and a significant decrease in mean cellular volume in both groups.

Conclusion

The harmful effect of high and low doses of BPA on haematopoietic processes was proved.

Open access

Barbara Woźniak, Iwona Matraszek-Żuchowska, Katarzyna Sielska, Sebastian Witek, Andrzej Posyniak, Krzysztof Niemczuk and Jan Żmudzki

Abstract

Introduction

In the European Union, the use of thyreostatic drugs for fattening slaughter animals has been banned since 1981 under Council Directive 81/602/EEC. For protection of consumer health against unwanted residues and in compliance with Directive 96/23, each EU country must monitor thyreostats in samples of animal origin. This paper presents the results of research on thyreostatic residues carried out in Poland in 2011–2017.

Material and Methods

The material for testing was urine (n = 3,491), drinking water (n = 127), and muscle samples (n = 349) officially collected by Veterinary Sanitary Inspectors in slaughterhouses and farms throughout the country in accordance with the national residue control plan. The samples were examined for the presence of tapazole, thiouracil, methylthiouracil, propylthiouracil, and phenylthiouracil using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry through an accredited method.

Results

In four bovine and three porcine urine samples, the permissible thiouracil concentration was exceeded. In one sample of porcine urine, methyl- and propylthiouracil were found. The presence of thiouracil and its derivatives in urine samples is most likely due to feeding animals diet containing cruciferous plants.

Conclusions

The results of research indicate that thyreostats are not used for anabolic purposes in slaughter animals in Poland.

Open access

Sylwia Terpiłowska, Dorota Siwicka-Gieroba and Andrzej Krzysztof Siwicki

Abstract

Introduction

Nickel and iron are very commonly occurring metals. Nickel is used in industry, but nowadays it is also used in medical biomaterials. Iron is an element necessary for cell metabolism and is used in diet supplements and biomaterials, whence it may be released along with nickel.

Material and Methods

BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells were incubated with iron chloride or nickel chloride at concentrations ranging from 100 to 1,400 μM. The following mixtures were used: iron chloride 200 μM plus nickel chloride 1,000 μM, or iron chloride 1,000 μM plus nickel chloride 200 μM. The cell viability was determined with MTT, LHD, and NRU tests.

Results

A decrease in cell viability was observed after incubating the BALB/3T3 and HepG2 cells with iron chloride or nickel chloride. A synergistic effect was observed after iron chloride 1,000 μM plus nickel chloride 200 μM treatment in all assays. Moreover, the same effect was observed in the pair iron chloride 200 μM plus nickel chloride 1,000 μM in the LDH and NRU assays.

Conclusions

Iron (III) and nickel (II) decrease cell viability. Iron chloride at a concentration of 200 μM protects mitochondria from nickel chloride toxicity.

Open access

Wojciech Kozdruń, Natalia Styś-Fijoł, Hanna Czekaj, Piotr Indykiewicz, Rafał Sandecki and Jowita Samanta Niczyporuk

Abstract

Introduction

Avian poxvirus infections are widespread in the domestic poultry population but are also reported in wild birds. In poultry, these infections cause significant economic losses, while wild birds may be a reservoir for poxvirus which affects breeding poultry. However, wild birds may also exhibit characteristic anatomopathological changes. This study concerns the infection of wild-living great tits (Parus major) with the avian poxvirus in Poland.

Material and Methods

Samples of internal organs and skin collected from great tits were homogenised and total cellular DNA was isolated. In PCR, the primers complementary to gene encoding the core protein 4b of the HP44 strain of fowl poxvirus (FPV) were used.

Results

After electrophoresis in 2% agarose gel, the PCR product of 578 bp characteristic for FPV was obtained in DNA samples isolated from skin lesions and the heart. The analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the virus strain showed 99% similarity to many poxviruses previously isolated from great tits and other free birds at various sites in the world.

Conclusions

This paper is the first clinically documented evidence obtained in laboratory conditions of avian poxvirus cases in great tits in Poland.

Open access

Katarzyna Żarczyńska, Przemysław Sobiech, Anna Snarska, Dawid Tobolski, Chandra Shekhar Pareek and Dariusz Bednarek

Abstract

Introduction

In calves, hyposelenosis degenerates skeletal muscles in different parts of the body. The extent of damage to muscle cells can be diagnosed by determining the activity of creatine kinase (CK), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The aim of this study was to analyse variations in the serum levels of LDH isoenzymes in calves with nutritional muscular dystrophy (NMD), to determine the applicability of this parameter for diagnosing NMD, and to describe the influence of hyposelenosis on total protein (TP), triglyceride (TG), and cholesterol (CHOL) levels.

Material and Methods

Two groups of calves (n = six animals per group) were used. After birth, control group calves (SC) were intramuscularly administered 10 ml of a preparation containing selenium (Se) and vitamin E, and experimental group animals (SE) that were not injected. Blood was collected after 5, 15, and 25 days, and the concentrations of Se, vitamin E, TP, TG, and CHOL and the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), CK, and LDH fractions were determined.

Results

Hypocholesterolaemia and elevated TG levels were found in SE group calves whose LDH fractions revealed a significant increase in LDH4 and LDH5 activity and a decrease in LDH1 activity when electrophoretically separated.

Conclusion

Nutritional muscular dystrophy is accompanied by hypocholesterolaemia and elevated TG levels caused by muscle lipolysis. LDH4 and LDH5 activity parameters assist early diagnosis of NMD in calves.

Open access

Manol Karadaev, Ivan Fasulkov, Radina Vasileva and Nasko Vasilev

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to determine the fetal number in goats by using hormonal and ultrasonographic examinations. The experiments were conducted with 106 clinically healthy Bulgarian local goats, 1.5 to 7 years of age, weighing 35-52 kg. Hormonal examinations were performed on 24 goats. Serum progesterone concentrations were measured during a 7 days interval, between 21-63 day of pregnancy, and during a 14 days interval until the 133rd day of pregnancy. Ultrasound examinations were performed on 82 goats with a multi-frequency linear transducer (5.0-12.0 MHz). All animals were studied once during an interval of 7 days transrectally (21-28 day, 29-35 day, 36-42 day) and transabdominally (43-49 day, 50-56 day, 57-63 day), respectively. The accuracy of determining the number of singleton and multiple pregnancies by hormonal analysis were 51%, 58%, 69% and 47%, 52%, 62%, respectively. The accuracy of ultrasonography to determine the number of fetuses is highest in singletons 76.18%, followed by twins 72.56% and the lowest in triplets and more fetuses 21.43%. Highest accuracy, sensitivity and positive predictive diagnosis were established in the period 43-49 day of pregnancy (P<0.05). The obtained results show that the most appropriate period is between 42 and 49 day of pregnancy for determination of the fetal number in Bulgarian local goats using ultrasonography.

Open access

Marcin Sońta, Anna Rekiel and Martyna Batorska

Abstract

The aim of this study was to determine the possibility of using duckweed in sustainable livestock production and aquaculture. Duckweed is a small plant which grows in water and exploited in biotechnology, dietetics, phytotherapy, and ecotoxicology. It is also used for biological wastewater treatment, and for biogas and ethanol production. This study provides the characteristics of duckweed and presents results indicating its applicability in livestock feeding. Duckweed is a rich source of proteins and amino acids, and contains many macro- and micronutrients as well as vitamins and carotenoids. Unfortunately, it accumulate considerable amounts of toxic metals and compounds from the aquatic environment, which may limit its use as a feed ingredient. Fresh or dried duckweed is willingly consumed by animals (poultry – laying hens, broiler chickens, ducks; cows, sheep, goats, swine, fish) and is a valuable protein source to them. It has been scientifically demonstrated that its use in moderate amounts or as a partial replacement of other protein feed materials, including soybean meal, has a beneficial effect on the productivity, fattening, and slaughter performance of livestock and poultry as well as on the quality of their meat and eggs. Research addressing duckweed use as a feed ingredient should focus on developing various growth media technologies, including the use of slurry digestate, to obtain high biomass yields. Another research direction should be to determine risks in the production chain (collection, processing), which limit its use in monogastric and ruminant diets.

Open access

Aleksandra Drażbo, Krzysztof Kozłowski and Evi Croes

Abstract

The present study investigated the effect of an emulsifier with very high hydrophilic-to lipophilic balance (HLB) value (18) on growth performance and fat digestibility in turkeys. A total of 1120 day-old female Hybrid Converter turkeys were randomly divided into four treatment groups with 7 replicates (pens) of 40 birds each. Control group (T1) turkeys were fed a basal diet (BD), while turkeys from experimental groups received different levels of the commercial emulsifier VE added to diets with standard or reduced metabolizable energy (ME) content: T2 - BD + 500ppm of VE; T3 - BD + 500 ppm of VE until 8 weeks of age, and 250 ppm from 9 to 16 weeks; T4 - BD - 3% ME + 500ppm of VE until 8 weeks of age, and 250 ppm from 9 to 16 weeks. Regardless of its dietary inclusion level (500 g/ton and 500/250 g/ton feed), the emulsifier positively influenced the body weights (BW) and body weight gains (BWG) of birds. On days 56 and 112, significant differences in the values of these parameters were noted between the control treatment (T1) vs. groups T2 and T3. Emulsifier addition even contributed to an increase in the BWG and BW of birds receiving diets with 3% lower ME content, as compared with turkeys fed control diets. This shows that the emulsifier more than compensated the reduction in ME in T4. The turkeys from group T3 were characterized by significantly higher feed efficiency than T1 and T4 birds. The highest fat digestibility was noted in turkeys fed diets with a standard ME level and emulsifier addition (T2 and T3). In conclusion, the use of dietary emulsifier positively influences the growth performance of turkeys, and improves fat digestibility.