Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 1,883 items for :

  • Surgery, other x
Clear All
Open access

Catherine D. Tobin, Tamas A. Szabo, Bethany J. Wolf, Kathryn H. Bridges, Tod A. Brown, Erick M. Woltz and Robert D. Warters

Abstract

Background and Aims: Manual bag mask ventilation is a life saving skill. An investigation was made to compare two different facemasks used in bag mask ventilation, the standard and the novel Tao face mask, and evaluate the ability of novices to achieve adequate tidal volume. Methods: The study design was a crossover trial, which randomized forty medical students with no previous airway experience to learn bag mask ventilation with the standard mask and the Tao face mask. Primary outcome measures were mean and median tidal volume per mask, and secondary measures were hand area, age, gender, and order of mask usage. Results: Medical students who used the Tao mask first achieved significantly more tidal volume than those who used the standard mask first (p = 0.002). However, when comparing face masks that were used second, the tidal volume did not differ significantly between the two masks (p = 1.000). Greater tidal volume was achieved on the second attempt relative to the first attempt with each mask. There was significantly more tidal volume achieved with greater hand size with the standard mask, whether it was used first or second (p < 0.001 and p = 0.012 respectively). Greater hand size was associated with greater tidal volume in the Tao mask also, but only when used first (p < 0.001). When first attempting bag mask ventilation, inexperienced students achieved greater tidal volume with the Tao Mask. The results also suggest that hand size matters less when using the Tao Mask. Conclusion: When first attempting bag mask ventilation inexperienced students achieved greater tidal volume with the Tao Mask. The results also suggest that hand size matters less when using the Tao mask.

Open access

Mircea Gabriel Mureșan, Ioan Alexandru Balmoș, Iudita Badea and Ario Santini

Abstract

Despite the significant development and advancement in antibiotic therapy, life-threatening complication of infective diseases cause hundreds of thousands of deaths world. This paper updates some of the issues regarding the etiology and treatment of abdominal sepsis and summaries the latest guidelines as recommended by the Intra-abdominal Infection (IAI) Consensus (2017). Prognostic scores are currently used to assess the course of peritonitis. Irrespective of the initial cause, there are several measures universally accepted as contributing to an improved survival rate, with the early recognition of IAI being the critical matter in this respect. Immediate correction of fluid balance should be undertaken with the use of vasoactive agents being prescribed, if necessary, to augment and assist fluid resuscitation. The WISS study showed that mortality was significantly affected by sepsis irrespective of any medical and surgical measures. A significant issue is the prevalence of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in the clinical setting, and the reported prevalence of ESBLs intra-abdominal infections has steadily increased in Asia. Europe, Latin America, Middle East, North America, and South Pacific. Abdominal cavity pathology is second only to sepsis occurring in a pulmonary site. Following IAI (2017) guidelines, antibiotic therapy should be initiated as soon as possible after a diagnosis has been verified.

Open access

Gabriel Alexandru Popescu, Tivadar Bara and Paul Rad

Abstract

Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (ACS), despite recent advances in medical and surgical care, is a significant cause of mortality. The purpose of this review is to present the main diagnostic and therapeutic aspects from the anesthetical and surgical points of view. Intra-abdominal hypertension may be diagnosed by measuring intra-abdominal pressure and indirectly by imaging and radiological means. Early detection of ACS is a key element in the ACS therapy. Without treatment, more than 90% of cases lead to death and according with the last reports, despite all treatment measures, the mortality rate is reported as being between 25 and 75%. There are conflicting reports as to the importance of a conservative therapy approach, although such an approach is the central to treatment guidelines of the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome, Decompressive laparotomy, although a backup solution in ACS therapy, reduces mortality by 16-37%. The open abdomen management has several variants, but negative pressure wound therapy represents the gold standard of surgical treatment.

Open access

Septimiu Daniel Popescu, Alex Otniel Popescu, David Maior, Mihaela Dănilă, Mihaela Dobria and Valentin Nădăşan

Abstract

Background: Finding accurate health-related information on the Internet may be a real challenge for users lacking the critical skills necessary to assess the validity of online content, even if they browse websites that are compliant with credibility criteria. The aim of the study was to check whether an overall high website credibility or compliance to any of the individual criteria for credibility are correlated/associated with a higher quality of health-related information on a sample of Romanian and Hungarian stroke-related websites.

Methods: The cross-sectional study included a sample of 50 websites presenting stroke for the general population in Romanian and Hungarian language. The websites’ compliance with 12 widely recognized credibility criteria, and the completeness and accuracy of the stroke-related articles found on the respective sites were systematically assessed by two independent evaluators applying a common evaluation procedure.

Results: The mean value of the credibility score was 4.3 points (95% CI: 3.9–4.8), the mean value of the completeness score was 4.8 points (95% CI: 4.2–5.5), and the mean value of the accuracy score was 6.6 points (95% CI: 6.3–6.8). Correlation coefficients between the credibility score and completeness/accuracy score did not reach statistical significance (Spearman rho = 0.038, p = 0.793 and Spearman rho = 0.156, p = 0.278, respectively). With a few exceptions, the t-tests for independent sample comparison have shown no significant differences between websites that complied and those that did not comply with each individual credibility criterion.

Conclusions: The mean credibility score of the Romanian and Hungarian stroke-related websites was poor and it was not correlated with neither completeness nor accuracy of the information displayed on the respective pages. With a few, practically irrelevant exceptions, compliance with individual credibility criteria was not associated with higher content quality on the investigated sample.

Open access

Elena Patrascu and Claudiu Manea

Abstract

Obstructive sleep apnea is a chronic disease characterized by the appearance of apnea or hypopnea episodes during sleep. This condition is associated with several risk factors. Among them, the most important is obesity and it is the only potentially curable. The treatment is polimodal and it involves several therapeutic directions. The purpose of this paper is to establish the role of obesity in the etiology of sleep apnea, as well as the role of the weight loss in its management, both through intensive lifestyle interventions and surgical therapy.

Open access

Krishnamoorthy Madhusudhan, Nor Eyzawiah binti Hassan, Norasnieda binti Md Shukri, Shahrul bin Hitam and Ikmal Hisyam bin Bakrin

Abstract

Small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma (SCNEC) of the nasopharynx and nasal cavity is a rare condition. It is an aggressive malignancy with a high recurrence rate. Despite its rarity in the sinonasal region, it may occur as a second primary malignancy. Patients with cancer of the head and neck region are more prone to develop a second primary tumor due to the field cancerization phenomenon, and a higher incidence is seen in those who have previously received radiation therapy. A detailed clinical and histopathological examination is pivotal to diagnose SCNEC as a second primary malignancy. We wish to highlight such a peculiar case from our center.

Open access

Georgi Petrov Kukushev and Dilyana Vicheva

Abstract

BACKGROUND. The rigid endoscope developed by Karl Storz in 1961 led to a great advance in diagnosis and surgery and nowadays it is the gold standard in routine ENT practice. In addition, the development of video cameras has enhanced the surgical abilities as well as teaching opportunities in endoscopic sinus surgery.

OBJECTIVE. We developed a new prototype endoscope using the “chip-on-the-tip” technology. The aim of our non-clinical study was to observe and discuss the experimental data collected from laboratory tests on plastic models.

MATERIAL AND METHODS. The prototype rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope has two parts - inner and outer. The inner part includes the chip-on-the-tip camera, light source and the cable. The outer part is a metal tube ending with a 0-degree lens. We performed laboratory tests of the rigid chip-on-the-tip endoscope for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.

RESULTS. We have observed technical parameters of the rigid chip-on-the-tip in order to compare them to conventional endoscopes connected with camera head units that are standard equipment for rhinosurgery and diagnosis.

CONCLUSION. Its advantages compared to the conventional Hopkins endoscope, connected to a standard camera head, are the smaller size, weight and the necessity of only one cable instead of two, allowing easy handling.

Open access

Codrut Sarafoleanu and Raluca Enache

Abstract

Dysphagia is a common disorder associated with a large number of etiologies like aging, stroke, traumatic brain injury, head and neck cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, structural changes or congenital abnormalities. The type of the treatment and its results depend on the type, severity and the cause of dysphagia. The primary goal of dysphagia treatment is to improve the swallowing process and decrease the risk of aspiration.

Along with the existing rehabilitation swallowing treatments, new adjunctive therapy options developed, one of them being the neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES).

The authors present the principles of NMES, a small literature review about the results of this therapy and their experience in using transcutaneous NMES in dysphagia patients.

Open access

Simona Cernea, Andrada Larisa Roiban and Emőke Both

Abstract

Background/Aim: In patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D), malnutrition has been recognized as a serious health problem mainly in hospitalized conditions, but there is little data regarding malnutrition outside hospital settings. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of malnutrition and associated metabolic changes in ambulatory patients with T2D.

Material and methods: This analysis used data collected from 161 patients with T2D enrolled in a larger cross-sectional study. Several anthropometric and metabolic parameters were obtained. Nutritional status was evaluated using the Controlling Nutritional Status (CONUT) score. Correlations between nutritional status and metabolic and anthropometric parameters of interest were examined.

Results: Of all T2D patients, 29.8% had mild malnutrition (CONUT score 2–4). These patients presented lower triglyceride (124.8 ± 42.3 mg/dL vs. 165.7 ± 84.3 mg/dL, p <0.01) and LDL cholesterol concentrations (62.7 ± 20.0 mg/dL vs. 104.9 ± 30.6 mg/dL, p <0.0001), higher leptin levels (10.2 [1.6–44.9] ng/mL vs. 7.3 [0.9–49.8] ng/mL, p <0.05) and free leptin index (0.65 [0.04–2.88] vs. 0.36 [0.01–3.98], p <0.05) compared with patients with normal nutritional status. They also had higher total body adiposity. In patients with obesity, triglycerides levels were lower in those with mild malnutrition vs. those without malnutrition (mean difference: 27.26 mg/dL, p <0.05). Serum C peptide/leptin ratio was higher in T2D patients with normal nutritional status without obesity, the differences being significant vs. the two groups with obesity (with or without malnutrition, 0.71 ± 0.53, 0.42 ± 0.33, and 0.49 ± 0.68, respectively). HOMA-IR was lower in patients with normal nutritional status without obesity vs. those with obesity (mean difference: −0.7126, p <0.05), while in patients with mild malnutrition, HOMA-IR values were higher, but no differences were noted between the groups with or without obesity.

Conclusion: In patients with T2D, malnutrition associated with lower triglycerides concentrations, even in the presence of obesity. Malnutrition and/or obesity associated with higher HOMA-IR, serum leptin levels and lower C peptide/leptin ratio.