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Open access

Elisna Syahruddin, Aida Lufti Huswatun, Ari Prabowo, Jamal Zaini, Fariz Nurwidya, Achmad Hudoyo and Anwar Jusuf


Introduction. Combinations of gefitinib and radiotherapy have been observed to have synergistic and anti-proliferative effects on lung cancer in vitro. In the clinical setting, patients who presented with respiratory difficulties such as superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS), radiotherapy should be given immediately to address the emergency while waiting for the results of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation test. However, there has been no study that described the role of radio-therapy in Indonesian patients with EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma.

Methods. This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and toxicities of gefitinib and radiotherapy combination in lung adenocarcinoma patients in Persahabatan National Respiratory Referral Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia. Subjects were consecutively recruited between January 2013 and December 2016.

Results. Thirty-one lung adenocarcinoma with EGFR mutations were enrolled. Most of them were male (51.61%) with a median age of 54.5 years old (range 38-70 years old). EGFR mutation characteristics were on exon 21 L858R point mutation (61.30%), exon 21 L861Q point mutation (16.12%) and exon 19 deletion (22.58%). Radiotherapy was given at doses between 30-60 Gy. Among these subjects, median progression-free survival (PFS) was 185 days (95%CI; 123.69 – 246.30), 1-year survival rate (1-yr) was 45.2%, and median overall survival (OS) was 300 days (95%CI; 130.94 – 469.06). There were no grade 3/4 hematological and nonhematological toxicities recorded. The most frequent grade 1 and 2 non-hematological toxicities were skin rash, diarrhea, and paronychia that might be related to tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI).

Conclusion. The combination of TKI with radiation may be considered in EGFR-mutant lung adenocarcinoma subjects.

Open access

Evelyn Nathalia, Madelaine Skolastika Theardy, Sharleen Elvira, Graciella Rosellinny, Andrew Steven Liyanto, Michael Putra Utama and Anton Sumarpo


Introduction. LIM Homeobox 6 (LHX6) encodes a LIM homeodomain transcription factor, contributes to tissue development and morphogenesis, and is mostly expressed in medial ganglionic eminence and odontogenic mesenchyme. However, it has been reported to play a role in cancer progression. This narrative review summarizes literatures that emphasize the molecular regulation of LHX6 in tumorigenesis.

Methods. In our systematic review, the PubMed database was used for the literature search using the combination of words that included “LHX6” and “cancer”. Relevant studies, including in vitro, in vivo experiments, and clinical studies, were analyzed in this review.

Results. We found evidences that LHX6 might be important in the inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, growth, invasion, and metastasis through the suppression of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Moreover, LHX6 is observed to be downregulated in certain types of cancer due to hypermethylation, thus hindering its tumor suppressing ability. In addition, hypermethylation can also be used to determine the stage of cancer development.

Conclusion. The downregulation of LHX6 expression might be responsible in promoting cancer progression. Future studies are necessary to investigate the potential of LHX6 as a novel cancer biomarker as well as its therapeutic implications towards certain types of cancer.

Open access

Andrei Mihai Voiosu, Paul Bălănescu, Ioana Daha, Bianca Smarandache, Aurelia Rădoi, Radu Bogdan Mateescu, Cristian Răsvan Băicuş and Theodor Alexandru Voiosu


Background. We aimed to determine the relationship between endocan and cirrhotic cardiomyopathy.

Materials and methods. Patients with liver cirrhosis and no heart disease were included in a prospective observational study with liver disease decompensation and death as primary outcomes.

Results. 83 cirrhotic patients were included and 32 had cirrhotic cardiomyopathy. Endocan levels were significantly lower in patients with cirrhotic cardiomyopathy (5.6 vs. 7 ng/mL, p = 0.034). Endocan correlated with severity of cirrhosis, time to decompensation or death from liver disease (OR 4.5 95% CI 1.06-31.1).

Conclusion. Endocan is a promising biomarker of severity of cirrhosis and may help in the diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction in this population.

Open access

Dimitrios Velissaris, Nikolaos-Dimitrios Pantzaris, Panagiotis Bountouris and Charalampos Gogos


Introduction. The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) as calculated from the white cell differential blood count is a marker that has been used as a prognostic index when assessing patients suffering from several clinical syndromes, including sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between NLR and the commonly used severity scores of sepsis SOFA, APACHE II and SAPS II in a population of emergency admitted adult patients with sepsis in a tertiary center.

Methods. A prospective observational study was conducted in the Emergency Department of the University Hospital of Patras, Greece, based on data extracted from 50 patients consecutively enrolled, suffering from sepsis of multiple origin. The study period was from May 01, 2017 until June 30, 2017. The NLR was calculated from the total white blood cell (WBC) count values measured from a peripheral venous blood specimen drawn on admission. C-reactive protein (CRP) was also measured. The sepsis severity prognostic scores APACHE II, SAPS II and SOFA were calculated for each patient.

Results. NLR was positively correlated with the sepsis severity prognostic scores on admission (SOFA, rs = 0.497, p < 0.001; APACHE II, rs = 0.411, p = 0.003; SAPS II, rs = 0.445, p = 0.001). Total WBC was also significantly correlated with the scores (SOFA, rs = 0.342, p = 0.015; APACHE II, rs = 0.384, p = 0.006; SAPS II, rs = 0.287, p = 0.043). Serum CRP did not show any significant correlation either to NLR or to the sepsis severity scores on admission.

Conclusions. NLR is an easily calculated, cost-efficient index that could be used as a tool for clinicians when assessing sepsis patients in the Emergency Department. Although NLR measurement is simple, and rapidly available, future and larger prospective studies are warranted to confirm its definite value as a prognostic index in sepsis patients.

Open access

Ali Khalili, Soheil Ebrahimpour, Iradj Maleki, Saeid Abediankenari and Mousa Mohammadnia Afrouzi


Background. Regulatory T (Treg) cell plays a key role in autoimmune diseases. We evaluated the regulatory function and frequency of Treg cells and secreted IL-10, IL-35 concentration in Crohn’s disease (CD).

Methods. Twenty-three patients with CD and 25 healthy controls (HC) were included in this study. We analysed the alteration of Tregs frequency using flow cytometry for CD4, CD25, CD127 and FoxP3 markers. Surface expression of CD4, CD25 and CD127 markers were used for isolation of relatively pure Treg cells. Suppressive activity of Tregs was determined by measuring their ability to inhibit the proliferation of T responder (Tres) cells. In addition, the amounts of IL-10 and IL-35 cytokines in co-culture supernatants were measured by ELISA assay after stimulation with anti-CD2/CD3/CD28.

Results. CD patients had significantly lower frequency of CD4+ CD25+ CD127low FoxP3+ Treg cells in comparison with controls (2.17 ± 1.04 vs. 2.83 ± 1.07, p = 0.0352). Additionally, Treg cells mediated suppression was not significantly different in CD patients compared to controls. There was a significant difference in IL-10 secretion in response to anti-CD2/CD3/CD28 stimulation compared with HC (p = 0.0074).

Conclusion. The frequency of CD4+ CD25+ CD127low FoxP3+ Tregs decreased in active stage of CD but there was no impaired suppressive function of CD4+ CD25+ CD127low FoxP3+ Treg cells. We suggest that an alteration in the balance of Tregs and T effectors may contribute to pathogenesis of CD.

Open access

Emma Weiss, Cristina Japie, Ana Maria Balahura, Daniela Bartos and Elisabeta Badila


Background. The Roma population has a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, higher mortality, and shorter life expectancy. It is found in the largest number in Romania, but published data are still scarce here. We studied cardiovascular risk factors and disease along with target organ damage on a population of Roma inhabitants from Bucharest, Romania.

Methods. This cross-sectional study enrolled 806 Roma subjects (18-83 years), in a community-based participatory research manner. Demographics included anthropometric data, a questionnaire on social status, education, medical history, and health deleterious behaviors. Medical evaluation included clinical examination, blood pressure, ankle-brachial index, pulse wave velocity measurements, blood tests (complete blood count, lipid profile, glucose, creatinine, uric acid), dip-stick microalbuminuria, dilated fundoscopy, ECG, and echocardiography.

Results. Prevalence of all cardiovascular risk factors was high, peaking in abnormal lipid metabolism (82.13%), heavy smoking (63.02% including ex-smokers) and obesity (50.99%). The first and the latter were actually similar to the general population in Romania. Almost half of subjects were at high or very high risk for fatal cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions. The study shows that the Roma population in a more affluent region in Romania shares a similarly high cardiovascular burden to their surrounding community.

Open access

Gabriel E. Pérez Baztarrica, Leonardo P. Armijos Carrion, Juan H. Abarca Real, William A. Paredes Lima, Otto P. Giler Saltos and Rafeal Porcile


There are few case reports of cases of carotid and aortic dissection related to the ergotamine abuse, but the cases that affect the coronary arteries is a very rare coronary. We present a patient of a 48-year-old female with an ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction attributable to chronic ergotamine use. The coronary angiography showed dissection of right coronary artery proximal.

Open access

Teodor Salmen, Daniel Traila and Irina Ruxandra Strambu


Introduction. Registries are necessary particularly for rare diseases. The REGIS registry was developed to improve scientific research in the field of interstitial lung diseases (ILDs).

Material and Method. We analysed 144 patients with interstitial lung diseases enrolled during a three year period, selected the sarcoidosis cases and analysed the data with Excel 2007 Software.

Results. A number of 26 sarcoidosis patients were included (18.06% out of the total), of which 46.15% were female, with an average age of 41.34±9.84 years; 23.08% were smokers. 88.46% pf patients had mediastinum pulmonary involvement: stage II in 17 patients, stage III in 5 patients and stage IV in one patient; only 3 patients had extra thoracic involvement. The medical investigations performed were: chest X-ray (96.15%), thoracic HRCT (96.15%) that identified hilar adenopathy (96%), nodules (68%), with peribronchovascular localization (44%); spirometry (96.15%) that revealed an average CV of 94.99±23.07% out of the predicted value, DLCO 78.41±19.39% out of the predicted value; bronchoalveolar lavage (38.46%); serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (73.08%) and pulmonary or lymph node biopsy (80.77%). The patients that needed treatment (46.15%) were administered oral corticosteroids (10 patients), acetylcysteine (1 patient) and pirfenidone (1 patient).

Conclusions. The number of patients enrolled is low as a result of the voluntary reporting, especially in severe cases and with access to all investigations needed for diagnosing.

Open access

Anna Mirela Stroie and Mircea Nicolae Penescu


Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome is a rare manifestation of systemic lupus erythematosus, characterized by altered mental status, headache, convulsions, visual field impairment and posterior and reversible alterations on imaging scans(1,2). The clinical picture develops over a few hours, presenting with rapidly progressive neurological symptoms(3). It was first described in 1996. It is more frequent in patients with acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease, thus in lupus patients with kidney disorders. It is associated with hypertension, other autoimmune diseases beside lupus, immunosuppressive therapies, especially antibody-based immunosuppressive therapy, and organ transplantation. It is clinically reversible within one week and imaging changes resolve within 2-4 weeks. It is treatable and has a good prognosis. We present the case of a young woman of 27 years, diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus who developed convulsive seizures, headache, visual impairment, being under immunosuppressive therapy with azathioprine. The kidney biopsy revealed class IV lupus nephritis and partial remission of the nephrotic syndrome. The other manifestations of SLE in this patient were cutaneous, immunological, articular and haematological. The patient had a good short, medium and long-term prognosis at 30 days and also at 6 months.

Open access

Oana Sîrbu, Victoriţa Șorodoc, Alexandra Stoica, Alexandr Ceasovchih, Mihai Constantin, Laura Huiban, Gabriela Dumitrescu, Luminiţa Vâţă and Laurenţiu Șorodoc


Introduction. Celiac disease is a chronic bowel disease with a prevalence of 1% in the general population. This condition, immune-mediated, may exhibit multiple extra-intestinal changes, including the liver.

Case presentation. We present the case of a 43-year-old patient presenting in our clinic for fatigue, associated with cytolytic and cholestatic hepatic syndrome with an onset of 10 years. During this time, the patient performed multiple investigations with the exclusion of viral, autoimmune etiology, primitive biliary cirrhosis and Wilson's disease. An abdominal ultrasound recorded an elongated, with an infundibular septum gallbladder. Abdominal computer tomography did not detect any changes. The final diagnosis is chronic alithiasic cholecystitis receiving hepatoprotective treatment with symptom relief and improved hepatic disorders. Over the past 2 years, the patient was diagnosed with osteoporosis (T score = -2.7 followed by treatment with Calcium and Vitamin D and improvement in T score to -2.1), and an iron deficiency anemia corrected with oral iron treatment. Upon resuming the anamnesis, we notice the presence of an intermittent bloating associated with diarrhea. Positive anti-transglutaminase antibodies required upper endoscopy with biopsy witch confirmed celiac disease.

Conclusion. Despite the rather low prevalence of celiac disease in the etiology of hepatocytolysis, it is important to investigate its presence in the context of hepatic changes with uncertain etiology. This case motivates us to be rigorous in looking for secondary causes of hepatic impairment even in patients with apparently benign changes.