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Maria Bonner

Abstract

Communication style on signs in public spaces reflects the sociocultural values of a speech community and provides insight into its preferred mode of communication with unknown communication partners. The linguistic routines present in these texts are part of professional linguistic competence. Starting with an inadequate Danish translation of a sign in a German supermarket, this article examines texts on Danish signs with the purpose of identifying and describing the inventory of patterns for this particular genre. Using Sandig’s text linguistic approach, a corpus of about 200 texts was analyzed with respect to the linguistic patterns for regulating behavior or conveying information - the most prominent linguistic actions on signs. The analysis comprises the grammatical forms, the lexical means to characterize the intended message, mitigation strategies, face saving strategies and irony as well as expressions of emotional involvement by the communicator. The results do not allow a general conclusion about preferred patterns but show the potential range of options. Two observations might be pointed out as salient, namely the use of huske ‘remember’ as presequence for getting attention or as part of the proposition and the relative scarcity of mitigating strategies.

Open access

Andrzej Szubert

Abstract

The term Fr. confixe is not new and was used for the first time in 1982 but at present it is actually only used in German language linguistic literature. Confixes are morphemes of Latin and Greek origin that can form words with stems, affixes and other confixes. The article is an attempt at describing the confix øko- in the Danish language as well as its semantic and morphological properties. The status of confixes is unusual because they are actually bound morphemes with the exception that two confixes can form a word. The use of øko- shows that it is on the way to becoming a free morpheme (root), or perhaps it has become it already.

Open access

Henrik Galberg Jacobsen

Abstract

The paper deals with the relations between Danish pro­nunciation and the so-called ‘normative orthography’, i.e. the official Danish writing rules as laid down by the authorities in orthographic directives since 1889. The specific aim of the paper is to suggest a model for defining and describing the different kinds of normative orthography and their mutual relations. The criteria used for placing the orthographic rules in the model are (a) whether the rule is dependent on pronunciation or not, and (b) whether the resulting orthography (i.e. the prescribed letters) are linguistic signs (inflectional endings, morphemes) or non-signs. The model thus consists of four types of normative orthography, i.e. autonomous expression orthography (Danish: autonom udtryksortografi), autonomous content orthography (Danish: autonom indholdsortografi), mirrored expression orthography (Danish: spejlet udtryksortografi) and mirrored content orthography (Danish: spejlet indholdsortografi). Among these, mirrored expression orthography constitutes the core domain, followed by mirrored content orthography, which has been a growing domain after the 1889-directives, and autonomous content orthography, which is a potentially growing domain.

Open access

Witosław Awedyk

Abstract

This paper is a contribution to the discussion on audiovisual translation (AVT) in cinema and broadcast media on the example of Poland and Norway seen from the perspective of viewers. It aims at establishing possible differences and similarities in the way dominant AVT modes are viewed by younger people in these two countries. In AVT studies Norway has always been classified as a subtitling country while Poland has traditionally been associated with cinema subtitling and television voice-over, of which the latter often baffles AVT scholars. Consequently, one may presume that the audiences in these two countries are likely to have fairly disparate expectations towards AVT modes used in their cinemas and broadcast media. For the purpose of this article a questionnaire has been prepared and the findings arising from the analysis of the submitted replies will be presented here.

Open access

Michel De Dobbeleer

Abstract

In his Geschiedenis van de Russische literatuur [History of Russian Literature, 1985] the famous Dutch Slavist and essayist Karel van het Reve, links Russian writers, such as Gavriil Derzhavin and Aleksei Pisemskii to Dutch and Flemish ones, such as Vondel and Willem Elsschot. Further on, in the chapter on Lev Tolstoi, Multatuli’s Max Havelaar is cited, although it is clear from the start that none of these Dutch-speaking authors could have had any influence on the Russian writers to whom Van het Reve devotes his colourful chapters. In this article I explore the ‘transnational’ potential of Van het Reve’s self-willed literary-historiographical approach. It turns out that Van het Reve mentions most of these Dutch-speaking authors rather to indicate - directly or indirectly - that he (dis)likes them, than to contribute to the achievements of comparative literature. Both in his choice of authors and his way of practicing literary historiography Van het Reve manifests himself as a proponent of the vent (cf. the well-known vorm of vent or manner or man discussion). Nevertheless, some of his observations could be considered as transnational constellations (in the world-literature sense of the term).

Open access

Nicole M.H. Lücke

Abstract

This paper focuses on current issues relating to cultural encounters in contemporary Dutch literature. The starting point is transculturality - a concept suggesting a new way of looking at culture that is frequently applied as an alternative to concepts such as multi- and interculturality. This article deals with theoretical issues as well as with the question whether transculturality is appropriate when characterizing how cultural contacts are represented in literature. The results of this case study based on a literary analysis of Kader Abdolah’s short story “Een onbekende trekvogel” provide a strong argument for modifying the concept of transculturality and sharpening awareness for increasing interrelations of individuals, societies, institutions and nations.

Open access

Michał Czerenkiewicz

Belgijska Sarmacja, staropolska Belgia

Rafał Szmytka

Open access

Willem Bant

Abstract

During the Second World War, both in the Dutch East Indies and in Curaçao, journals were published in which Dutch authors could publish their works unhampered by German censorship. In addition, literary works in Dutch were published in the Dutch East Indies, South Africa and New York. A man involved in all these initiatives was Jan Greshoff, an author who had played an important role in Dutch literature during the time between the two world wars. In this article, the role of Greshoff in relation to the literary journal De Stoep, which originated in Curaçao after the German occupation of Holland in 1940, will be explored. Although he never went to Curaçao and never met the journal’s founder, Luc. Tournier, in person, Greshoff played an important role in the history of De Stoep during the years of the war, and thus indirectly in the development of Dutch literature in Curaçao.

Open access

Małgorzata Dowlaszewicz

Abstract

The sixteenth-century morality play Elckerlijc is one of the few texts mentioned in almost all Dutch canon lists. It is no surprise that this is one of the few medieval Dutch texts transferred into different languages and cultures. There are two Polish texts based on it, the first from 1921 by Jarosław Iwaszkiewicz (Kwidam), the second from 1933 by Stanisław Helsztyński (Każdy (Everyman): średniowieczny moralitet angielski). The text was though never directly translated into Polish from Dutch. The main issue is whether these translations have influenced the image of Dutch literature in Poland. It appears that secondary literature has seen the plays of Iwaszkiewicz and Helsztyński only as transfer of German or English literature and ideas and that it is rarely known that the original story originates from the Netherlands.

Open access

Christina Lammer

Abstract

Two hypotheses on identity lay at the core of this paper. (1) Doeschka Meijsing presents identity as unstable and as a construct of one’s own in three novels. (2) Meijsing uses memory discourses and cultural phenomena to display how characters struggle when (re-)constructing their identities. Pip (Over de liefde, 2008), has to deal with the secret affair of her female lover who has got pregnant. She refuses to be the ‘left one’ everyone feels pity for. As a result, she has to create a new identity that doesn’t fit the expectations of others. In 100% Chemie (2002), an unnamed daughter of a German migrant and Dutch father grew up in the Netherlands. As she doesn’t identify with any nationality she seeks to stabilize her fragmented identity. Investigating the history of her German family she tries to create her own identity. Robert Martin, main character of De tweede man (2000), struggles with the legacy of his brother Alexander who has passed away. Robert has not only inherited his brother’s fortune but also his friends. They want Robert to replace Alexander. Robert has to create a new identity which fits their lifestyle. Meijsing’s characters feel as if they have ‘lost’ their identities, as far as they ‘owned’ ones. As a result, their stories stress views on identity: do they have fixed identities, which can be destroyed? Is identity a construction and if so, how can it be created? I discuss how cultural memory, especially counter-memory which questions memory discourses, impacts the construction of identity. Furthermore, I show how intersections of identity categories trouble Meijsing’s characters.