Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 121 items for :

  • Biotechnology x
  • Microbiology and Virology x
Clear All
Open access

I. Ficová and M. Galdíková

Abstract

The detection of chromosomal damage serves as a tool for the verification of the genotoxic effects of chemical substances in vitro. We used conventional cytogenetic analysis in order to test for the potential genotoxic action of the insecticide thiacloprid (the active ingredient in commercial preparation CALYPSO 480 SC). The test cultures of bovine lymphocytes obtained from the peripheral blood were incubated with the insecticide in concentrations of: 30, 120, 240 and 480 μg.ml−1 for 24 and 48 hours. After 24 hours of incubation, we observed that the increasing concentrations resulted in a significant (P < 0.05; P < 0.01) increase in the frequency of DNA damage. Our experiments showed the presence of aberrations of a non-stable type (chromatid and chromosome breakage). The conventional chromosome analysis was supplemented with fluorescence in situ hybridization for the detection of numeric and stable structural aberrations. Whole chromosome probes for bovine chromosomes 1, 5 and 7 (BTA 1, BTA 5 and BTA 7) were used in the experiments.

Open access

D. Babangida, A. A. Ibrahim, F. O. Oladayo, A. A. Magaji, B. R. Alkali and A. H. Jibril

Abstract

Foot and mouth disease (FMD) poses a major constraint to international trade in animals and animal products in sub-Saharan Africa. A retrospective and serological survey was conducted in two major Border States of Sokoto and Kebbi in north-western Nigeria. This study was aimed at determining the sero-prevalence of FMD virus (FMDV) antibodies in cattle at international animal control posts and to examine cattle population movement across the border area for a period of one year (January to December 2014) from the available records. Eight hundred and eighty (880) sera samples were collected and screened for the presence of antibodies to FMDV using the competitive enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The data were subjected to chi-square and relative risk to check for independence and association. An overall seropositive rate was found to be 55.2 % (486/880). A 79.9 % (359/450) sero-positive rate was obtained from the Kamba border, while 29.5 % (127/430) was found at the Illela border. Kamba showed a statistically significant (P < 0.05) higher sero-prevalence when compared with cattle that are crossing the Illela border (Relative Risk 2.70; 95 % Confidence Interval 2.317—3.149). Retrospective data from the control posts revealed that an average number of 2019 and 2747 of cattle, respectively, crossed the Kamba and Illela international borders monthly. The highest influx of animals from the Niger Republic through the Illela international border was encountered between the month of March and April 2014. The magnitude of the presence of FMDV Non-structural protein (NSP) antibodies in the study areas is an indication of the infection and the presence of the virus in the study areas and the neighbouring countries.

Open access

P. Mudroň, T. Höskuldsson and X. Mihajlovičová

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between body condition and claw diseases in dairy cows. The data used in this study were obtained during two sessions of routine orthopaedic treatment and hoof trimming on a dairy farm in Eastern Slovakia. In the spring and autumn terms, 482 dairy cows were examined for claw diseases and their body conditions were recorded. Out of the 482 dairy cows, 56 % were affected by one or more claw diseases in one or more legs. Digital dermatitis and sole ulcers were the most often detected claw diseases found in this study. The dairy cows with a low body condition score (BCS < 3) showed a higher prevalence of claw diseases (P < 0.05) than the cows with a body condition score greater than 3. However, this difference could not be found when infectious diseases of the claws (digital dermatitis, foot rot, and interdigital dermatitis) were analysed. The results of this study allowed us to conclude that the dairy cows with a lower grade of body condition suffered more from non-infectious claw diseases (sole ulcer, white line diseases).

Open access

Z. Mojžišová, P. Drzewnioková, E. Bocková, B. Vargová, V. Majláthová, I. Majláth, T. Csank and J. Pistl

Abstract

The tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are arboviruses of the genus Flavivirus in the family Flaviviridae. Their hosts are vertebratesof which rodents are the reservoirs of TBEV and birds are the reservoirs of WNV. Both viruses are transmitted from reservoirs to mammals by vectors. TBEV is transmitted by ticks (mostly Ixodes spp.) and WNV by mosquitoes (mostly Culex spp.). Both viruses are capable of infecting mammals, including man. TBEV and WNV are neurotropic, however infection is, in most cases, subclinical or accompanied by only moderate general signs. However, in some cases they can cause serious disturbances of the CNS. Our study focused on the detection of the genomes of TBEV and WNV in vectors by means of the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The flavivirus genome was detected by means of oligonucleotides delineating the sequence in NS5 gene that encodes viral RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase. For the detection of TBEV, we used the oligonucleotide pair detecting the structural envelope protein. The positive samples were subjected to the sequence and phylogenetic analysis. The WNV was not detected in any of the pooled samples prepared from 616 mosquitoes captured in the vicinity of the village Drienovec, district Košice-surroundings. The investigation of 676 ticks demonstrated the presence of one strain of TBEV. One blood-fed I. ricinus female was obtained from a goat grazing in a pasture in the Dúbrava area close to Prešov. The genetic analysis revealed the presence of a strain close to the endemic strainsof TBEV Hypr and Neudörfl. The results of our study can become a motivation for additional studies in model locations oriented on ecology and circulation of these important zoonotic flaviviruses.

Open access

M. Šuleková, M. Smrčová, A. Hudák, M. Heželová and M. Fedorová

Abstract

Food dyes are largely used in the process of manufacturing pharmaceutical products. The aim of such a procedure is not only to increase the attractiveness of products, but also to help patients distinguish between pharmaceuticals. Various dyes, especially organic colouring agents, may in some cases have a negative impact on the human body. They are incorporated into pharmaceutical products including tablets, hard gelatine capsules or soft gelatine capsules, lozenges, syrups, etc. This article provides an overview of the most widely used colouring agents in pharmaceuticals, their characteristics and the EU legislation which regulates their use.

Open access

R. Nemcová, M. Maďar, S. Gancarčíková and J. Pistl

Abstract

FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) analysis of the intestinal tract of conventional mice, following 14-day supplementation of feed with host non-specific (porcine) strain L. reuteri L2/6, showed in the presence of complex microbiota, a significant increase in the counts of representatives of the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, and a significant decrease in the representatives of the genera Clostridium, Bacteroides and Enterobacteriaceae. At the same time, the supplemented strain stimulated the population of caecal lactobacilli of the species L. reuteri. These results demonstrated that the L. reuteri L2/6 colonised the jejunum, ileum and caecum and modulated the investigated intestinal microbiota.

Open access

A. Jackova, R. Mandelik, J. Novotny, S. Salamunova and S. Vilcek

Abstract

Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is the causative agent of hepatitis E — an emerging zoonotic disease distributed worldwide. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of HEV in Slovakian domestic pigs, as this has not been studied yet. Clinical samples (n = 269) from fourteen randomly selected domestic pig farms for three different age categories of pigs were analysed and the subsequently detected isolates were genetically characterized. The reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis revealed that 32 pigs (11.9 %) of all age categories were HEV RNA positive. The highest occurrence was detected in fattening pigs (14.8 %) and the lowest in weaning pigs (12.5 %). The HEV RNA was not observed at all in the youngest category (the suckling piglets). The phylogenetic analysis revealed that all Slovak HEV isolates clustered into two genetic groups of the genotype HEV-3.

Open access

P. Horváth and J. Koščová

Abstract

Plant extracts and essential oils (EOs) are characterized by their antibacterial properties against various bacterial pathogens, including staphylococci. Some strains of these bacteria are resistant against the adverse effects of the environment including antibiotics, e. g. methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). EOs alone cannot substitute for antibiotics but their treatment may be useful to intensify and strengthen the effects of antibiotics on pathogenic staphylococci. In this work, we tested the antibacterial effects of the essential oils of Mentha species with menthol as one of the effective substances against different strains of S. aureus. Two in vitro methods were used, the qualitative disc diffusion assay and the quantitative minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of selected essential oils. Peppermint oil from Mentha piperita, spearmint oil from Mentha spicata var. crispa and cornmint oil from Mentha arvensis were tested in this study against the various strains of Staphylococcus aureus, including methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The oils were dissolved in DMSO (dimethyl sulfoxide) and diluted at the following ratios: 1 : 1, 1 : 2, 1 : 5, and 1 : 10. Based on the results determined by the agar disc diffusion test, the highest antibacterial properties were observed in spearmint oil against S. aureus CCM 4223 at 1 : 2 ratio where the inhibition zone varied at a range of 35.67 ± 6.81 mm. We determined also the MIC of all the oils where concentrations of the oils were as follows: 1 %; 0.5 %; 0.25 %; 0.125 % and 0.0625 %. The lowest concentrations of essential oils that possessed inhibitory effects on the growth of S. aureus varied between 0.125 % and 0.25 %.

Open access

M. Levkut, M. Fukasová, K. Bobíková, M. Levkutová, K. Čobanová and M. Levkut

Abstract

This study compared the effect of dietary supplementation with an inorganic or organic zinc source on the gut morphology in the jejunum of broilers. One-day-old chickens were fed a basal diet (Control group: BD — 32 mg Zn.kg−1 DM), or the same BD supplemented with 30 mg or 70 mg of Zn per kg of DM in the form of ZnSO4.H2O (Group 1: 30 mg ZnSO4; Group 2: 70 mg ZnSO4), and 30 mg or 70 mg of Zn per kg of DM in the form of zinc chelate of glycine hydrate (Group 3: 30 mg Zn-Gly; Group 4: 70 mg Zn-Gly) for 40 days. The villus height was increased in the groups which received 30 mg ZnSO4 and 70 mg ZnSO4 and or 70 mg ZnSO4, as compared to the BD and 30 mg Zn-Gly. The villus surface was higher in all groups receiving the Zn supplements in comparison to the BD.

Open access

D. Juščáková and I. Kožárová

Abstract

Undesirable substances enter the organism of animals mostly via feed, water or veterinary medicines and their residues pass subsequently into the products of animal origin. In dairy cows, sheep and goats these residues are eliminated particularly in milk. Milk intended for human consumption must comply with safety criteria also with respect to residues of antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the presence or absence of antibiotic residues in the milk using the tests Milchtest and Premi®Test. While the Milchtest was developed for the determination of antibiotic residues in cow, sheep and goat milk, the Premi®Test is intended for the determination of antibiotic residues in meat juice, liver, kidneys, fish, eggs and in the urine of animals treated with antibiotics. As examined matrices, we used 45 samples of raw cow’s milk collected at 3 agricultural farms and 10 samples of milk offered to consumers at grocery stores. When using the Milchtest, 8 samples tested positive and 10 provided dubious results while testing with the Premi®Test showed that only 6 samples were positive for antibiotics. Comparison of the results confirmed a higher detection sensitivity of Milchtest reflected in higher numbers of positive samples and the detection of dubious results in samples of raw cow’s milk. However, it should be noted that even the Premi®Test, although not intended preferably for the determination of antibiotics in milk, can be used, if needed, for the preliminary screening of antibiotic residues in such a matrix.