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Using Patent Development, Education Policy and Research and Development Expenditure Policy to Understand Differences Between Countries – The Case of Estonia and Germany

Summary

Innovation is the key factor for economic growth. RDI policies pursued in a wholesome manner can have long term social significance. The true value of an invention depends upon factors such as its economic value, strategic value, cultural value and social value. Estonia and Germany share a long historical and legal connection. The German economy is strong and Germany has safeguarded it’s manufacturing, mining and construction sector through incremental innovation and focused state funding for RDI activities. Germany runs cost efficient entrepreneurship promotion programs. RDI in Estonia is dependent upon EU funding. Estonia lags behind Germany in respect of several global rankings related to technology and innovativeness. To make the Estonian economy knowledge-driven and technologically intensive, the state must focus on cultural, economic, social and strategic factors. Estonia should adopt RDI policies similar to Germany and also use the new UP regime to help its SMEs to acquire foreign patents.

Open access
An Analysis of the Relationship between Compensation and Employees’ Working Motivation Controlling for Proactive Behavior in Indonesian Hotel Industry

Abstract

In companies engaged in hospitality services, where contact between employees and guests is relatively intensive, employee motivation will be a determining factor for the success of the company. Unsatisfied employees cause the quality of work to decrease and things can be felt directly by guests. Compensation is one of important variables that can affect employees’ working motivation. Good compensation for employees will encourage them to work well and more productive. Working motivation is closely related to employees’ perceptions of compensation and their proactive behavior. This study aims to determine the relationship between employee perceptions of compensation and working motivation controlling for proactive behavior in hotel companies with a research hypothesis: “There a significant relationship between perceptions of compensation and employees’ working motivation controlling for proactive behavior.” A total of 700 employees working in 37 stars and non-star hotels throughout Indonesia were sampled in this study. Statistical calculations showed that the partial correlation of compensation variables and working motivation controlling proactive behavior is significantly correlated r(698) = .617, p<.01, significant 2-tailed. The coefficient is reduced or slightly weakened whilst taking away the effects of proactive variable comparing to. 814 with the proactive influence. However, the correlation of compensation and working motivation remains strong even without proactive attitude variable.

Open access
Autonomous Generated Income of Three Levels of Government and Money Supply in a Democratic Administration: The Case Study of Nigeria

Abstract

The study provides statistical proof of the influence of autonomous generated income of the three levels of government on money supply in the present day democratic administration in Nigeria. The study uses ex post facto research design and annual time series data ranging from 2000-2017. The data are obtained from CBN Statistical Bulletin 2017 edition and CBN Annual Reports and Ordinary Least Squares technique is employed to analyze them with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20. The findings reveal that Federal Government Independent Revenue (FGIR) and State government Independent Revenue (SGIR) impact on money supply positively and significantly while the Local Government Independent Revenue has insignificant positive impact on money supply. The policy implication of the results is that government revenue under the autonomous control of the three levels of government in Nigeria has a lot of influence on money circulating in the economy and therefore, stringent monetary policies should be applied to regulate it in order to prevent inflationary economic situation in the country.

Open access
The Competency Model of Graduated student in Air cargo Management Program of Thailand: Civil Aviation Training Center Thailand

Abstract

This research aims to explore the competency model of students who graduated from the Air Cargo Management Program of Civil Aviation Training Center. The research methodology consists of studying the competency requirements of an aviation company and that of the students in the Air Cargo Management Program. The sampling group consists of administrators and staff of aviation companies, amounting to a total of 210 participants. The competency model of students who graduated from the Air Cargo Management Program was collected using the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) method. This produces a semantic model which was confirmed using the Focus group method. The areas focused are competencies in attribute, knowledge, and skills. The results show that the highest mean in the Attribute competency, where 4 topics consisting of 17 subtopics were researched, obtained a mean score of 4.15, and an important weight score of 2.79. The Second highest mean score was in the knowledge competency, where 7 topics consisting of 17 subtopics were researched, obtained a score of 3.72, and the highest important weight score of 2.59. And the third was the Skills competency; the mean 3.70, the highest important w eight score of 2.59 and there are 6 topics consisting of 17 subtopics.

Open access
Development of Professional Competency for Printing Quality Control Personnel Using Training System via Edmodo

Abstract

This study aimed to solving problems in providing printing quality control personnel to Thai printing industry. The problems which are mainly concerned including: (1) the lack of competency and ability in authentic performance as well as (2) the lack of capacity in following the professional standard. Therefore, the study employs Edmodo to facilitate the training system. The research procedures included these following processes: (1) reviewing literature, (2) Exploring and evaluating the needs, (3) developing the training system prototype, (4) Evaluating the conceptual framework developed, (5) Drafting the training package through Edmodo, (6) evaluating and Implementing the training system, and (7) Taking the result into improving. The result elucidated that the developed PQC-Training system, after being applied into creating the training package by using the Edmodo website and application, could effectively promote the trainees’ professional competency that was in accordance to requirements of organizations in Thai printing industry.

Open access
Empirical Test of Pollution Haven Hypothesis in Nigeria Using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (Ardl) Model

Abstract

This study set out to investigate the reality or otherwise of the pollution haven hypothesis in Nigeria using data from 1970 to 2017 and using the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) models both in the short and long run. The study used FDI inflows as measure of economic activity and carbon dioxide emission as a measure of regulatory stringency. The study finds the previous FDI inflows as a significant determinant of current FDI both in the short and long run. This implies that the more FDI an economy attracts, the more potentials it has to further attract more FDI. Population, a measure of demand condition of the host economy is positively and significantly related to FDI inflows both in the short run and in the long run. Trade openness has a positively significant impact on FDI inflows in the long run, meaning that globalization encourages FDI inflows. A year lag of the FDI has a positively significant impact on FDI inflows in the long run. This suggest that pollution haven hypothesis which states that industries with polluting technologies tend to relocate to countries or areas (pollution havens) with lax or less stringent environmental regulations is a reality for Nigeria. The implication of this is that government of Nigeria must weigh the beneficial impact of FDI inflows against the pollution impact of ‘dirty’ FDI before deciding or setting its environmental policy.

Open access
Food: A Challenging and Complex Fundamental Care

Abstract

Food is permanently present in the daily life of the person, being much more than an act for the maintenance of life, dragging with it a multidimensional symbology and also being a way to obtain pleasure. In situations of health-illness and particularly in end-of-life situations, food may become a problem for the patient, family and for health professionals, in particular for nurses. This paper is a review of literature to present and justify the relevance of food as a basic but complex human need and to prospect its implications in the nursing care in this area, which constitutes a fundamental care. Bibliographic research was carried out at EBSCO (CINAHL and MEDLINE), academic Google and at the library of the Escola Superior de Enfermagem de Lisboa (Nursing College of Lisbon). This paper makes a critical and grounded analysis on the food phenomenon and the challenges it brings to the fundamental nursing care, and illustrates it with excerpts from an ongoing study of the first author on the food care process at end-of-life. In conclusion, nurse´s role regarding the food field should be individualized, being necessary the nurse to interact and get to know the patient to meet their expectations. This individual intervention with the patient has positive consequences for all involved in the process.

Open access
Greek-Albanian Relations, the Past, the Present and the Future

Abstract

Greek-Albanian relations can be considered as a complex relation, but at the same time with the highest potential for success in the region compared to the relations that Greece has established with the other immediate neighbours in the Balkans. These relations has passed through a continues fruition developments and sometimes with hindering situations that are deeply rooted in the history of the two nations. This can be noticed from some fundamental historical moments such as the creation of the Modern Greek state and the Albanian state, which have a constant influence in the way how current relationships are setup. It can be considered as an interdependent, vital and vibrant relation built upon a complexity of challenges, ready to generate new challenges and imposed balances, at least in the historical perspective. Greece and Albania share a similar history in many aspects, but at the same time, there are unifying and distinguishing aspects between the two countries and nations, like everywhere in the Balkans; history mostly divides nations rather than unites them. Referring to the historic ground of this relation, in this paper we will reveal the key factors that bear the heavy lift off the past, which prevails rather than the desire to have a better future.

Open access
Human Capital Depreciation: Impoverishment of Mangrove Shellfishing in Tumaco, Colombia

Abstract

This research studies a set of mangrove shellfishers on the South-Pacific Coast of Colombia. Results show the impoverishment and lack of human capital of shellfishers. Findings indicate that the age of shellfishers is negatively correlated to human capital formation. As a consequence, senior shellfishers exert higher levels of effort to maintain livelihoods. By estimating seemingly unrelated regressions, we identify that shellfishers with higher human capital harvest lower shellfish quantities, implying that the less educated shellfishers engage in the activity as a last resort. Furthermore, women are more frequent in the activity, though exhibiting non-significant differences in productivity compared to men.

Open access
Impacts of Distance Education System on Teacher Competency of Remote Schools in Lower Northern Thailand

Abstract

This research aimed to study the impacts of Distance Education System on teacher Competency and compare teacher Competency before and after Distance Education System is applied. The sample was 28 teachers from four Remote Schools in lower Northern Thailand. Questionnaire was used as a data collection tool with reliability 0.99. Mean, Standard deviation and t-test for dependent samples were applied in data analysis process. The results showed that the Competency of teacher before Distance Education System had four competencies in moderate level including Working Achievement Motivation, Self- Development, Curriculum and Learning Management and Analysis & Synthesis & Classroom Research while other competencies were in high level. Distance Education System has positive impacts on teacher Competency as the every competency reaches high level after the system is applied with statistical significance at the level of 0.01.

Open access