Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 797 items for :

  • International Law, Foreign Law, Comparative Law x
Clear All
Open access

Giovanni E. Reyes, Mark Govers and Dirk Ruwaard

Abstract

The main aim of this research is to present a theoretical review regarding the theory of social inclusion and social leverage. In this research, four fundamental and complementary approaches are taken into account: (i) the theory of growing capacities and increasing opportunities as essential aspects of Amartya Sen's theory of human development; (ii) the perspective and factors of the current process of globalization; (iii) Douglass North's neoinstitutionalist approach to social and political conditions; and (iv) foundations of the legitimacy theory from Jürgen Habermas. These considerations made possible a more comprehensive consideration that goes beyond the strictly economic elements, to complement the standpoint with other elements, including those of public policy analysis.

Open access

Rachel Reckinger and Christian Wille

Abstract

Given the current call for interdisciplinarity, we reflect on pragmatic methodological implementations of collaborative research – by drawing on empirical evidence from two large-scale cross-disciplinary research projects and by theoretically framing them in trilingual contexts (German, French, and English). These are two major innovations compared to the existing body of literature in this domain. Our empirical analysis shows that multi-, inter- or trans-disciplinary collaboration is an oscillating process along a spectrum of cross-disciplinarity – spanning additive, converging and synthesizing work patterns, i.e. multi-, inter-, and transdisciplinarity. Such an umbrella-term avoids the common amalgamation of ‘interdisciplinarity’ as the overarching category (cross-disciplinarity of whatever form) and one of the relevant subcategories (the specific work form that a research team chooses). Concretely, if the majority of methods are developed through communal negotiation processes, then a truly interdisciplinary analysis of research results can only be guaranteed through recursive self-reflexive loops. Initial research questions may still be additive and interactions can oscillate during the project process between addition und tentative convergence. We label this process situative interdisciplinarity. Multi-, inter- and transdisciplinarity are thus subsumed as a processual entity: flexible, possibly hybrid subforms of cross-disciplinarity. It needs constant reactivation, framing, timing and mediation by project managers. The major challenge lies in the collaborative transfer of concepts, theories, methods and research subjects. This transfer requires translation, explication and transposition of the various disciplinary ‘languages’ and can only be converged in an open-minded, team-oriented and reflexive work environment.

Open access

John Karkazis and Georgios C. Baltos

Abstract

In this paper a series of strategic logistics concepts, like transportation axes “attractivity”, substitution costs, geo-economic and emergency traffic paths, nodes and gates, are introduced and evaluated in a country case study assessing regional road networks. Based on the above mentioned, risk analyses are performed with regard to the logistics emergencies. Turkey’s main road network is being accordingly examined along with the policy implications of the results provided by current political changes in this country. This study exhibits that the R.T. Erdogan’s, AKP party-ruled, governments, caused not only high-level geopolitics and geo-economics repercussions but also have severe economic and logistics effects, activating incentives and infrastructure investments, especially in the so called Anatolian areas. The analysis of Turkey’s internal geo-economic trends offers notable insight into the mechanism controlling in general the regional socio-economic attractiveness and efficiency. In this context the socioeconomic indicator: "Roads Network Development" on regional basis and for each year of the period 1995-2012, has then been chosen and analyzed statistically as dependent variable in relation to the election results and the consequent political changes between the so called Kemalist and political Islam regimes; the results surprisingly confirm the relevant hypotheses tested.

Open access

Eneida Përmeti Çifligu

Abstract

The purpose of this study is the relationship between public debt and economic growth in Albania in post-dictatorships. Many authors have analyzed the mutual link between economic growth and public debt and the results and the methodologies are different in different countries and periods. Let’s see what data are specifically about these two indicators (provided by the Ministry of Finance, the Bank of Albania and the International Monetary Fund). Does the public debt performance affects the trend of the economic growth or not? I have mentioned what are the main events and phenomena in Albania, in Europe and in the World that have affected the Albanian economy. For these years, I have made comparisons with situations in other countries.

Open access

Georgios C. Baltos, Filippa S. Chomata and Ioannis G. Vidakis

Abstract

This paper describes how the standardization essentially, rather than referring to goals, outputs and outcomes, addresses duties, roles and actions, while eventually the latter ones affect and empower the former. The quest for quality is still on-going in pursuit of effectiveness and efficiency combined with social responsibility, as long as it is dependent upon societies’ willingness to change the world and share a better future. Although organizations have a long way to walk toward synergism and integration, quality management is being transformed from compliance to collaboration driven. The wide range of standards implementing the quality management systems based on ISO 9001 materializes its strategic direction to be functionally adapted to specific sectors and industries. On the other hand, plenty of later standards deal with the additional requirements that are applicable only to specific industries. They surely carry pros and cons. There is, however, a threatening likelihood that the relevant markets would reject some of the standards in case multiple standards overlap each other, creating complex bureaucratic burdens. Health and Safety standards are a success story against such concerns, while a plethora of Control and Risk management standards compete each other, which may be perceived more as a source of creativity rather than confusion.

Open access

Andrew Onwuemele

Abstract

Flood risks are considered as one of the most devastating natural disasters. Presently, flooding occurs in all the ecological zones in Nigeria which has been linked to global warming. In Lagos Megacity, the incidence of flooding is now a reoccurring decimal which is only an indication of the failure of the existing mechanism for flood risk reduction. Knowledge of public perception of flood risk is considered a crucial element for a proactive preparedness for flood risk reduction. This study is aimed at gaining insight into the public perception of flood risks for proactive flood risks preparedness among residents in flood prone areas in Lagos megacity, Nigeria. The survey research design was utilized. Data were collected by questionnaire from residents of flood prone neighbourhoods in the city. The results show high awareness of flood risks among respondents that have experienced flooding previously than respondents that have not experienced flooding in the past. It also reveals poor preparedness among respondents that have not experienced flooding. The paper calls for public awareness creation among residents in flood prone areas of the city as a strategy to promote preparedness for flood disaster risks reduction in the city.

Open access

Eneida Përmeti Çifligu

Abstract

A high public debt and its consequences in the economy remain a very important issue to be discussed, especially during the periods of crisis and recessions. During the crisis, although Albania managed to maintain a positive economic growth, its public debt remains high and worrying for the economists. The purpose of this paper is to determine if there exist a correlation between the public debt and the economic growth in Albania, where the economic growth will be considered as the increase of GDP. Many authors have provided their contributions with various empirical analyzes to study the mutual link between economic growth and public debt and the results and the methodologies are different in different countries and periods. What is the situation in Albania at about the last 25 years? Analyzing the macroeconomic situation (the structure of Albanian public debt, the data on economic growth and public debt, the reasons of a high deb etc.) and the main causes of a positive growth and a macroeconomic stability, but a high public debt, we can conclude over the expectations and the trend of the future.

Open access

Nguyen Thi Mai Hong and Vu Hong Nhung

Abstract

The article presents the reality of Poverty Reduction work at Bavi commune, Bavi district, Hanoi city, Vietnam today, obtained results, difficulties, drawbacks and its causes, then, the article claims the essential role and specific strengths of social workers majoring in poverty reduction to enhance the effectiveness of poverty reduction on the basis of sustainable development goals today.

Open access

Alqi Naqellari

Abstract

This paper analyzes Internal Aggregate Demand. This aggregate, along with other production indicators, is the main indicator of the country’s economic performance rate. Objective analysis is important for their perspective, as well as for a set of other related indicators, such as inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc. In economic theory, the Aggregate Demand Curve (AD) deals with negative slope. At the point where AD interrupts the AS (aggregate supply curve) there is macroeconomic equilibrium. Creating this equilibrium, shifting curves, creates a number of other figures that show how the level of output, prices and employment will be, and overall the level of economy in the future. In this study, with the data of the Albanian economy, was built, for a period of 17 years, the Internal Demand Curve. Three effects are analyzed: the real balance sheet effect, the interest rates and the external trade effect. The internal demand curve has resulted in a Positive Slope. The equilibrium is not created at the intersection point of the curves. These curves stand facing each other. The equilibrium is set by the different aggregate price level. The Gross Domestic Product Curve (GDP) is the equilibrium curve created by the interaction of Aggregate Demand and Aggregate Supply. This position is real, and creates opportunities for objective analysis of the economy. This paper uses econometric, statistical, comparative and synthesis methods.

Open access

S. M. Omodia

Abstract

Political Parties are Political institutions which are basically designed for power acquisition for the purpose of utilizing power for public good. In other words, political parties as agents of political development are expected not only to articulate and aggregate political interest but as a secondary group, political parties are expected to bring to their fold members from various ethnic background, class and religion for the purpose of galvanising them for national development. Thus, the concepts of people and integration are so central to the conception of leadership and organisation that defines political parties. This paper through the use of historical political analysis and the use of the structural-functional theory unfolds the activities of political parties in emerging democracies as regard the process cum pattern of mobilization for power acquisition and the utilization of such power for national development and integration. Based on the analysis, the deduction is that even though the leading political parties in Nigeria are national in outlook - both in party structure and membership, the parties are defective based on institutional weakness and the inability to provide functional check on party representative in government after utilizing the party to gain political offices. This is coupled with restrictive access to political offices through the zoning of such offices based on ethnic consideration, thereby fuelling ethnic identity in the Nigerian body - politic. The paper therefore views political parties as integrative mechanisms not only for deepening and widening democratic culture in emerging democracies but also as agents of national integration and development.