Andreea Georgiana Stănilă and Constantin Ionuț Barbu
Vrancea County, through its specific physical-geographical region of Romania is replete with natural elements with unique value. The diversity of species and natural habitats, the high density of large carnivores are the main reasons that led to the establishment of protected natural areas. As regards the Natura 2000 European network, in the county were declared a number of 11 Sites of Community Importance and Sites of Special Protection 3 as a reconfirmation of the value of biodiversity. These have given rise to some touristic activities becoming tourist attraction places for nature lovers. The presence of tourists in a protected area can threaten the environment, but if tourism is managed according to sustainability principles can bring a number of benefits to both the environment and local communities. From this point of view, Vrancea stays at tourist underdevelopment, so economical, due to poor promotion nationally and underinvestment. Thanks to the initiative of associations and relevant organizations were implemented European sustainable development programs that have had a real impact on protected areas in Vrancea County. The results obtained have resulted in actions for biodiversity conservation, tourism planning of the territory and contribute to increased quality of life for local communities. These projects are proof that this region of the country presents all the strengths to develop ecotourism plan.
The tourists servicing structure or unit in a particular territory has an impact on it as a result of the links which it (accommodation) establishes with certain environments, in which it evolves and which are connected to one other, leading in the end to the organization of space and hence the impact of tourism on the territory where accommodation options were implemented. In the whole local economy, tourism acts as a stimulating element of the local economic system, assuming a specific request for goods and services, which also causes an increase in their production sphere. Also, the touristic demand determines a correlated supply, which is materialized in the development of touristic structures and indirectly participating in the stimulating of production branches: construction and development of new means of transport, leisure facilities for winter sports, water sports, etc. Tourism development thus leads to a significant increase of production. Tourism drives and stimulates production in other areas. Tourism is a way of diversifying the economic structure of a country, region, territory. Tourism is capable of ensuring the prosperity of disadvantaged areas, being a cure for unindustrialized regions. This can be achieved through the development of less resource-rich areas with high economic value, which have a great heritage of natural and anthropogenic tourist resources. As a result, tourism is considered a lever to mitigate inter-regional imbalances. Furthermore, tourism, because it is a major consumer of force, plays an important role in the economy. It creates new jobs, thus participating in attracting extra labor from other sectors, helping to alleviate unemployment. It is important to note the fact that a job exclusively in tourism can generate 3 other indirect or induced related jobs. This can be explained by the fact that tourism is a major consumer of goods and services positively influencing labor use in its branches (agriculture, food processing, construction, transport, etc.).
Longitudinal connectivity restoration of watercourses is a major duty for scientists (biologists, hydro engineers, chemists etc.) that, by the means of technical exchange via conferences, projects, workshops, universities, and institutions demonstrate the major importance of a natural (non-anthropic) function of the lotic ecosystems. On the Ialomiţa River, the discharge sills located downstream from Padina chalet block the migration of some fish species, such as the brown trout (Salmo trutta) and the bullhead (Cottus gobio), prohibiting access to foraging areas and springs. Water Framework Directive 60/2000 / EC provides a legal framework for restoring “good status” of longitudinal and lateral connectivity of watercourses. Our proposed solution I can be applied to other discharge sills and dams sized between 3m and 6m high, and, where feasible can utilize existing power sources of some discharge sills. Solution II’s concepts allow the dimples inside the concrete plate to serve as a rest and recovery area for migratory species. Such benefits that ensure upstream/downstream fish migration while allowing discharge management to continue is unattainable in conventional systems. After solution II is applied the discharge sill does not lose any baseline characteristics while maintaining the original hydro-technical design objective, flood dissipation.
Cirques as one of the glacial erosional forms are suitable indicators to recognize the environmental conditions of the Quaternary period. Therefore, considering the importance of glacial cirque landforms, identifying and mapping the distribution of the circus with their shape features meets the need of environmental science, especially geomorphology. In this paper, in order to identify the quantitative features of cirques in Zardkuh region, the second derivatives, including second-degree curvature of the plan, profile and general curvature along with slope as a primarily derivative were used from geomorphometry indices. To this end, 20 meter resolution digital elevation model was generated from 1: 25,000 topographic map which was used in the geomorphometric analysis. The result shows that secondary derivatives had higher performance in identifying the feature shapes of glacial cirques. Likewise, the plan curvature Index could truly present the headwall around the circus as well as profile curvature clearly showed the avalanche path. In conclusion, it seems that the second derivative indicators, including curvature’s family, have high capability to extract and detect different natural shapes from digital elevation data.
Mohamed A. Ashour, Tawab E. Aly and Mahmoud M. Mostafa
The compatibility between the needed structural designed dimensions of the irrigation works and the dimensions of the water stream or the canal in which the irrigation work will be located has a great importance from more than one point of view. As it is well known, the main aim of the designer of such works is to reach the optimum design for maximum performance efficiency with economical cost, and minimize negative technical impacts that may be harmful to the safety of the whole work. Since the complete suitability between the obtained designed dimensions of the different construction elements of the work, and the original properties and dimensions of the canal in which the work will be constructed, is rarely occurring. The designer always has to make some changes in the original engineering properties and dimensions of canals, such as bed width, bed level, and/or inside side slope, to reach the needed suitable compatibility between the structural design and the natural original canal cross section. For the economical purposes, the design always needs less width of the work, than the width of the bed of the original stream cross section, so a contraction may be needed where the work will be constructed; the literature indicated that, such a contraction must not be less than 0.6 of the original bed width. That contraction, of course, has a direct impact on the different hydraulic parameters, such as water depth, velocity, and flow regime in the location of the work. Changes of such hydraulic parameters may exceed their safe permissible values, and so the whole structure may face some dangerous situations, which must be overcome. In this paper, we present a technical survey of the previous research concerning canal width contraction, with the needed technical comments, and comparisons as a logical approach for a master-thesis under the same title.
A sufficient knowledge on prehistoric culture and habitat of earliest Homo sapiens (Balangoda man) is available in Batadomba-lena cave, a noticeable rock shelter in lowland rainforest of southwestern Sri Lanka goes upto Pleistocene and Holocene eras. Late Pleistocene inhabitants of Batadombalena cave’s foraged for a broad spectrum of plant and mainly arboreal animal resources such as, monkeys, squirrels and rainforest snails etc. Archaeo-faunal evidence would help to describe the prehistoric man eating behavior as well as availability of nature pre-historic flora, fauna and environmental status. The family Acavidae is very sensitive to climatic variations, hence used as a bio-indicator to describe the variations of paleo-climatic nature. This study examined the morphological features of 20 samples of Acavidae family (living/fossil samples of Acavus superbus, and sub fossil samples of Oligospira waltoni) collected from soils by digger method in 2005 and compared with 20 samples from the same area at presently available. The shell characters of snails such as, height, width, diameter of mouth, thickness of lip, and angular of axis were measured and subjected to multivariate analysis to understand how climatic variability and nature of paleo-diet contribute survival of Acavidae species. Results showed that Acavus superbus living species had large shell characteristics than the sub fossils. Results of similar study in the same climatic status in 2000 showed that the shell measurements of Acavus superbus are relatively larger than both living and sub fossils in Batadobalena cave. Ordination diagram derived from species shell characteristics showed that Acavus superbus living species grouped as scattered /diffuse clusters, while sub fossil species grouped as a single cluster at the center of the ordination diagram. It is imply a trend of speciation /diversification of Acavus species from Pleistocene era to date. Multivariate analyses prove that, a strong positive correlation of species characteristics, such as height (r = 0.62), thickness of lip (r = 0.544) and angular of axis (r = 0.744), and a strong negative relationship (r = 0.832) for shell width for the species were observed. Our results are useful to compare with other fossil snails to see whether the climate change influence for changing body size. In conclusion, palaeo-environment, and present environment variation has been occurred in minimum way without much changes to observed Acavidae species compositions present and past.
The growing number of mountaineers (climbers and trekkers) makes the problem of human waste amount to a considerable size (in tonnes of faeces and cubic metres of urine) of environmental degradation. Purity in the high mountains depends mainly on the mountaineers visiting them (the rule of ‘Leave No Trace’); however, if there is no assured suitable sanitation system, no mountaineer can be blamed for leaving human waste (faeces and urine), because the process of excretion cannot be stopped. The management can address the issue in three ways: complete (non–invasive), partial (superficial), and invasive. Those approaches have been elaborately explained in three case studies: Fuji–san (Japan), Yamunotri (India) and Kilimanjaro (Tanzania), respectively. Each of the places have been described based on the provided human waste disposal solutions, starting from the historical perspective and ending with the plans for future implementations, i.e. how it was, how it is, and how it will be. The results showed the improvement of understanding of the environmental pollution by human waste, at least from the management site. Decent changes have appeared in recent years–management bodies care more about human waste disposal. The authorities of mountain regions are gradually exchanging the old, leaking toilets for brand–new eco–friendly ones. Even if this process is slow–mostly because of economical limitations–management bodies appear to be noticing this threat. However, mountaineers do not always follow the implemented and recommended solution, as this study shows. The users should change their irresponsible behaviour, because even the best solutions in the case of human waste disposal in high–mountain conditions will fail if they do not follow the rules.
The Albanian part of the Lake Ohrid area is endangered by several natural hazards like: floods, landslides, rock falls, erosion and wild fires. Those events have caused environmental, social and economical damages, so it’s important to study the factors that had caused them, their costs and the measures that should be taken to prevent, or to reduce their impact. Most of those events have been triggered by climate change, increasing of human pressure on land and unplanned urban development. Rapid urbanization of latest years has imposed people to build their homes or other activities on unsafe places. Climate change is another factor that has influenced in floods and droughts. The presence of the mountainous relief in the Western part combined with damage of vegetation cover, plays an important role in generating landslides and erosion of land. Natural hazards map of this area, created with GIS, shows where are distributed and which are the zones that can be caught by one of those events. Through this map the habitants of this area and local authorities, will know the risks and take necessary measures to prevent those events. Objectives of this study are to determine the risked areas and measures to minimize damages in life losing, economy and environment.
The strengthening of social cohesion, the globalization and the opening of the market to free competition, the expanding of the public – private partnership and the sustainable development are the main questions which arise today about the future of services of general interest. The current economic and financial crisis recalls that the main role of the services of general interest lies in ensuring the social and territorial cohesion. At the same time, the crisis has a significant impact on the public sector due to the pressure on public finances and it is essential to make every effort possible in order to keep providing these services and improve their quality. The upcoming accession of Romania to the European Union requires precise criteria for guaranteeing the performance and quality of public services of general interest and, in particular, the development of network industries and the link between these elements is a prerequisite for facilitating the integration, increasing citizens welfare and achieving in a short time the community rules and standards. The role of services of general interest is the sustainable development of a territory and their contribution in maintaining the balance between environment and society, exploiting the available resources in a particular plan, fighting against social exclusion and isolation. Overall, the man has an important role, he can transform the environment, because he is considered an integral part thereof, subject only to maintaining the balance between himself and the other components of the environment; at the same time, he must accept his role as a stabilizing factor in his relationship with nature. Services of general interest in a region should positively influence the life of people in order to achieve the long-term development vision by transforming the region’s functioning of institutions. Sustainable development means recognizing that economy, environment and social welfare are interdependent namely that affecting the environment in terms of quality will sooner or later have a negative influence on economic development and the quality of life of each one of us. The human component is an essential urban mobility, and every type of public service must be carried out in a planned system in terms of territory. A responsible demographic capable of long-term strategies for rational use of resources, ensures sustainability planning. Sustainability does not imply an imposed proactive strategy. If an area has resources, a vigorous and enterprising demographic system, fair and profitable exchanges with the outside, it is sustainable, thus it can evolve without outside intervention.
In conducting the scientific endeavor we started from the assumption that directing the efforts of local communities based on the principles of sustainable development, the degree of socio-economic development of the Tecuci Plain will be improved in a time span of 25-30 years. The development of the plain is below its potential but it presents viable resources that can lead to the shaping of sustainable development strategies applicable at territorial level. The various works consulted point out that the sustainable development of an area requires a complex precede that provides the analysis of all factors which can influence human settlements’ development of perspective. In this sense it entails identifying the natural conditions of the Tecuci Plain and how they are reflected by the socio-economic development of human settlements, knowing that this space is identified at regional and national level as an important agricultural center that utilizes rationally the land. The quintessence that can accelerate the sustainable development of the territory is given by the accessibility to the local and regional context of the Tecuci Plain. Accessibility is also a prerequisite in establishing a network of centers polarizing localities that maintain functional interdependencies and diffusion of services across sectors. The knowledge of space and disorders diagnosing are absolutely necessary for integrating development policies to implement the phenomenon of territorial, social and economic cohesion. Rural settlements of the Tecuci Plain radiate around the only urban center, the city of Tecuci, center that tries to regain its identity and its importance by channeling efforts to promote agricultural products in the region, given that the secondary and tertiary sectors fail to gain ground in front of the basic occupation of 60% of the administrative units that are part of the plain. The rural component from the Tecuci Plain is actually a whole scale (system) “built” on a macro scale with three elements (subsystems): the physical subsystem (environmental and natural conditions), the social subsystem (rural population and habitat rural) and economical subsystem (external physical environment transformed by the rural population).