Farhang Azarang, Mahmood Shafaei Bejestan, Ghazal Jafari and Maryam Karami
The materials mining from rivers have a variety of negative and positive effects. Currently, one of the most important issues in river engineering is the proper management of materials mining. In this research, global experiences and international standards for managing sand and gravel mining have been applied to evaluate the mining area in the Zohreh River in Khuzestan province (Iran). One of the evaluation methods in this field is the river matrix method. In this method, which is defined on the basis of river pattern, river characteristics such as river size, site location of materials, associated channel and type of deposit are being considered. In this research, a segment of the Zohreh River between Sardasht Zeydun bridge and Mohseniyeh village in which has good potential for gravel mining was selected and evaluated for river characteristics, mining potential and application of river matrix method. The study indicates that the Zohreh River has a braided pattern in the range. The volume of sediment materials in the target area is about 10 000 m3, the length and width of the mining area are 125 and 80 m respectively, and surface extraction with a maximum depth of 1 m was recommended for extraction of materials. At the end of the research, management solutions and solutions for mining of river materials were presented using various standards.
Mariusz Deja, Michał Dobrzyński and Marcin Rymkiewicz
In the shipbuilding industry, it is difficult to create CAD models of existing or prototype parts, especially with many freeform surfaces. The paper presents the creation of the CAD 3D model of a shipbuilding component with the application of the reverse engineering technology. Based on the data obtained from the digitization process, the component is reconstructed in point cloud processing programs and the CAD model is created. Finally, the accuracy of the digital model is estimated.
Chiurciu Irina-Adriana, Constantin Oprea Dana Maria, Grigore Elena, Bogan Elena and Tatu Florina
Nowadays, at global level, the linseed oil culture is more important economically than the linseed cultures for fiber. The world's largest linseed production is the linseed oil, followed by the culture for the consumption of seeds and for fibers. In this context, this study presents the evolution and the main trends in the production of the linseed oil for Romania in the period 2008-2017, the analysis being based on the values of specific indicators, namely the areas cultivated with linseeds and the production of the linseed oil achieved at the national level, macro-regions and development regions, both as a total and in the private sector as well. This analysis will be done in the context of the ongoing climate change also affecting Romania's territory. Analysing the results, one can notice that, although after 1990 the cultivated areas have decreased dramatically, since the integration of Romania into the EU, the linseed oil cultivated areas have started to grow. Thus, in 2017, Romania was the sixth EU linseed oil producer in the EU, with the South-East region holding a significant share of the cultivated areas.
Kamila Svobodova, Luis Monteiro, Jiri Vojar and Katerina Gdulova
Planning for recreational activities in protected areas involves an understanding of multiple and complex factors. Trails constitute the main recreation facility in protected areas. They are an important and common infrastructure that concentrates visitor movement. Their sustainable planning and management requires an understanding of how the visitors made their selection. The aim of this study was to identify the effect of trail attributes on visitor numbers in the Krkonoše Mountains National Park in the Czech Republic. The methods used in this study present an analytical approach involving geographic information system analysis, field monitoring and data analyses using generalised linear models. The results showed the preferential tendencies among visitors to certain trail attributes. Marginal significance and a rather strong variability in preferences (over 10%) were identified for five trail characteristics: the amount of local attractions; diversity of land cover types; dominant land cover along a trail; soil erosion; and the type of trail surface. In our study, we illustrate an analytical framework for the assessment of trail characteristics that can help guide trail analyses and management efforts. On the other hand, our findings raise new research questions and point to the requirements for further research in order to better understand how environmental attributes influence visitor choice and to use this knowledge for trail planning and management.
Adil Malik, Qun Zheng, Shafiq R. Qureshi, Salman A. Ahmed and D. KB Gambo
In the paper, a back swept impeller of centrifugal compressor is experimentally studied and numerically validated and modified to increase its pressure ratio and improve efficiency, as well as to analyse the effect of splitter blade location between two main blades. The back swept multi splitter blade impeller was designed with a big splitter positioned close to the main blade suction surface and a smaller splitter close to the pressure surface. Adding this multi splitter improves the overall performance of the modified impeller due to less intensive flow separation and smaller pressure loss. In particular, the total pressure ratio was observed to increase from 4.1 to 4.4, with one percent increase in efficiency.
Air quality is an issue of general, global interest, which requires the implementation of appropriate environmental policies, taking into account the essential connection between the world economy and the environment. Air is an important natural element of the environment, vital for human life and health, as well as for fauna and flora, and it needs to be protected by all means, including legal methods.
Lately, scientific studies and researches have shown that the chemical structure of the atmosphere is changing for natural or anthropogenic causes, which requires more effective monitoring of the impact of human activity on the atmosphere, doubled by the implementation of radical measures, including legal ones, meant to insure the protection of this environmental element.
The increase in the quantity of polluting gases eliminated into the atmosphere causes global warming, destroying the ozone layer and generating other imbalances in the natural environment.
In these conditions, and since pollution knows no political-administrative borders, being a global phenomenon, there is an absolute need for international cooperation based on conventions and treatises on this topic, or directives from international bodies and organisations, and at a national level, the environmental legislation must aim to protect the air in the troposphere as well as the other elements outside the troposphere, such as the ozone layer, which is part of the stratosphere.
Na-Na Yang, Tian-You Zhao, Ji-Guang Gu and Zhi-Peng Chen
It is clear that the advantages of fibre glass-reinforced plastics surpass those of steel, but the failure analysis of composite structures is much more complex than that of isotropic materials as composite materials may fail in a variety of ways. In order to simulate the damage and fracture of bolted joints of fibre reinforced composite, the bond-based peridynamic method suitable for elastic, brittle and anisotropic characteristics of composite material is used. The peridynamic model for composite laminate is validated by the finite element method. Then a peridynamic program of composite damage is applied to calculating the damage of bolted joint structure and the damage propagation process and failure mode of the structure is obtained.
The paper discusses the use of multiclustering statistical analysis in the assessment of domestic wastewater filtration effectiveness. Calculations included data collected over four months of experiments with using waste as filling material of vertical flow filters for domestic sewage treatment. The effectiveness of pollutants removal was analysed in case of mechanically shredded waste in the form of PET flakes, PUR foam trims, shredded rubber tires and wadding. The organic compounds (CODcr, BOD5) removal, suspend solids, biogens (as NH4+, PO43−ions) and oxygen saturation changing compared with sand filling was analysed. Multiclustering statistical analysis allowed to divide pollutants removal efficiency of analysed materials into 3 clusters, depending on the hydraulic loading. The first group consisted in quality parameters of treated sewage: the highest reduction of BOD5 and NH4-N. It included the values of quality parameters and indicators for the filtrates obtained at the lowest hydraulic load from columns filled with 60 cm of rubber tires or sand. The second group comprised the results for fillings containing foam, PET and rubber tires (the other hydraulic loads). It featured the highest reduction of total suspended solids and PO43−. Removal of easily biodegradable organic compounds was at a similar level in both cluster groups. The filter filled with polyester waste (wadding), which was as effective as 30 cm layer of sand, and the filters filled with 60 cm of sand working at the highest hydraulic load. Third group showed the lowest values of parameters and indicators for analysed filtrates.
The article presents the results of the research conducted within the framework of the project entitled WIND-TU-PLA (ERA-NET, MARTEC II), the general aim of which was to design and analyse supporting structures for wind turbines intended for operation on the South Baltic area. The research part described in the article aimed at developing a preliminary design for a jack-up platform which can operate on water areas with depth of 40 m. The main task was to determine optimal dimensions of platform legs and the radius of their spacing. Two jack-up platform concepts differing by spacing radius and hull dimensions were designed with the intention to be used as a supporting structure for a 6-MW offshore wind turbine. For each concept, the parametric analysis was performed to determine optimal dimensions of platform legs (diameter Dleg and plating thickness tleg). Relevant calculations were performed to assess the movements of the platform with parameters given in Table 1 in conditions simulating the action of the most violent storm in recent 50 years. The obtained results, having the form of amplitudes of selected physical quantities, are shown in comprehensive charts in Fig. 6 and 7. Based on the critical stress values (corresponding to the yield stress), the area was defined in which the impact strength conditions are satisfied (Fig. 14).
Then, the fatigue strength analysis was performed for two selected critical leg nodes (Fig. 12). Its results were used for defining the acceptable area with respect to structure’s fatigue (Fig. 14). Geometric parameters were determined which meet the adopted criteria, Table 6. The decisive criterion turned out to be the fatigue strength criterion, while the yield point criterion appeared to be an inactive constraint.
Hasan Yılmaz, Ludwig Lauwers, Jeroen Buysse and Guido Van Huylenbroeck
Turkish livestock sector plays very important role in the Turkish GDP and the use of manure affects the environment but the farming sector want the farmers to employ the use of more integrated manure practice. The study assessed the economic impacts of integrated manure and chemical fertilizer used and the manure management practices sustainable for Turkish agriculture. Turkey is dependent on foreign countries not only for energy but for chemical fertilizers raw materials. High price of chemical fertilizers is one of the negative impact, manure substitution will lead to stable macro-economy, and environmental friendly economy and agricultural productivity will also impacts. To achieve these impacts, some manure practices suitable for sustainable rural development in Turkey was assessed.