This article reviews the history of plum cultivation and cultivars in Sweden with the aim to describe important heirloom cultivars and to explain how they are conserved in the Swedish National Gene Bank. Commercial plum production in Sweden started around 1890 and was initially in part based on small-fruited local cultivars grown on their own roots. Along with the development of a modern Swedish nursery industry and experimental research the use of grafted trees grew in importance. In the mid-1950s, the yearly plum production in Sweden was estimated to be approximately 2000 tonnes. Since the mid-1980s, production has declined and it is now only about 250 tonnes per year. The work to safeguard heirloom cultivars began with a national inventory in 2005 and since 2012, so-called mandate cultivars have been planted in the Swedish National Gene Bank at Alnarp. Today 45 plum cultivars are preserved with two trees in the gene bank at Alnarp and two trees in local clonal archives.
Madalina Butac, Mihai Botu, Madalina Militaru, Craisor Mazilu, Ion Dutu and Silvia Nicolae
In Romania, work on identification, conservation and evaluation of fruit genetic resources activities was initiated in 1970 in order to limit the loss of biodiversity. There are rich sources of germplasm located in two research centres: RIFG Pitesti with 642 accessions and UCv-SCDP Vâlcea with 361 accessions, representing wild species, local populations, named cultivars, breeder’s selections and rootstocks. Observations were made according to the IBPGR Prunus descriptors updated by the ECP/GR Prunus Working Group. The following genetic resources from the Piteşti and Vâlcea collections were used in a breeding programme in the development of several plum cultivars: ‘Grase de Becs’, ‘Carpatin’, ‘Ialomiža’, ‘Kirke’, ‘Wilhelmina Späth’ (for resistance / tolerance to Plum pox virus); ‘Vinete romāneşti’, ‘Tuleu timpuriu’, ‘Anna Späth’ (for late blooming), ‘Tuleu gras’, ‘Vâlcean’ (for fruit quality), ‘Stanley’, ‘Pescăruş’, ‘Centenar’ (for productivity), and ‘Diana’ (for self-fertility). The plum rootstock breeding programme used the following genotypes as sources of genes: ‘Rosior văratec’, ‘Brompton’, ‘Renclod Verde’, ‘Pixy’, ‘Saint Julien A’, ‘Albe mici’, ‘Scolduş’, ‘Porumbar’, etc. Breeding using the germplasm in these collections resulted in the release of 40 cultivars and 11 generative and vegetative rootstocks.
Plums have been commercially grown in Latvia since the 19th century. Plantations expanded especially in the 1920s–1930s. At that time, many cultivars were introduced, mostly from Western Europe. After the severe winters of 1939/40, 1941/42, 1955/56, and 1978/79, the plum orchard area significantly decreased because of a lack of winter-hardy cultivars. For this reason, cultivars from Russia, Belarus, and Estonia were introduced. Among the old landraces, highly winter-hardy ‘Latvijas Dzeltenā Olplūme’ is still important. Previously it used to be productive and had good fruit quality. Unfortunately, nurseries often propagated the hardiest clones, which lacked productivity. As Latvian consumers love yellow plums, at present breeding and propagation of productive clones from old orchards is ongoing. In the mid-20th century, active plum breeding started in Latvia, crossing hardy genotypes with high quality donors. From this period ‘Lāse’ and ‘Minjona’ are still grown. Since the 1980s, plum breeding has been undedrtaken at the Institute of Horticulture. The crossing work in plums concentrated on the hexaploid group, aiming to combine large fruit size with good flavour, different time of ripening (in particular, early to medium late) and and good winter-hardiness. New cultivars include ‘Sonora’, ‘Ance’, and ‘Adelyn’, which have good quality, and productivity 20–30 kg per tree, and in some years up to 70 kg per tree.
The most widely used rootstocks are seedlings of Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. ssp. divaricata C.K. Schneid., which is more hardy that the common myrobalan plum. These rootstocks have good compatibility with most cultivars except gages, and are adapted to different soil types and are disease tolerant. Their drawback is a long growth season which reduces winter-hardiness of grafted cultivars. Also, they tend to form suckers around the stem. A hardy seedling PU-20651 (P. salicina ssp. ussuriensis × P. cerasifera) was bred at the Institute, which was shown to slightly reduce tree vigour. Testing of several Western European and Russian rootstocks did not result in their introduction into production. Trials are presently being carried out with size-reducing root-stocks originated from cultivar Wangenheim VVA-1, Weiwa, S766, and M633.
Commercial production of plums in Latvia is relatively small, as the area of orchards is the smallest among fruit trees. Plums are grown mostly for fresh consumption, with a small part for jams, yoghurt, and ice-cream additives. Fruits are sold mostly in small shops, markets and at farms. The main reason is the climate, which allows growing of a limited range of cultivars that tolerate the –30 °C winter temperatures in some years (about every five years). About 20 cultivars are grown commercially; the share of the six most popular plum cultivars is 69% of the total plum production. In recent years, plantations of new cultivars developed at our Institute have expanded, especially regarding the early ripening cultivar ‘Ance’.
The main objective of this work was to verify the possibility of shortening the time needed to produce nursery trees of plums, in view of the economic profitability in nursery production. To achieve this goal, rootstocks Citation®, Ishtara®, Penta®, Torinel®, Pumiselekt and St. Julien (from Wädenswil) were chip budded in the springtime with ‘Shiro’, ‘Angeleno’®, ‘Black Amber’, SLE2014/1, ‘Fertility’ (Asian type plums) and ‘Stanley’ (European type plum) as a control. At the end of the vegetation period, height (from the grafting position), trunk diameter above the place of budding and the number of shoots was recorded for each tree. The Penta® rootstock was evaluated as the most efficient, while ‘Shiro’ variety was evaluated as the most suitable variety. The best variety/rootstock combination was the combination of ‘Shiro’ on Ishtara® rootstock, where 100% of the budded trees reached an average height of 33.0 ± 3.6 cm. The highest trees of an average of 68.3 ± 4.6 cm were recorded for the combination of SLE2014/1 on Torinel® root-stock.
This article discusses the implementation of the reader-response theory and approach in the context of a literature course (English Literature 1) taught to students enrolled at the Department of English Language and Literature, who are preparing to be future teachers of English language. This article aims to examine the benefits and values of the reader-response theory applied in the described context, as well as potential drawbacks. The basic postulates of the reader-response theory and reader-response approach in class emphasize the crucial role of the reader on the literary and aesthetic experience when reading a literary text. The reader’s way of understanding and perceptions of a literary text, as well as the experience of the reader, influence the interaction between the reader and a text. This interaction contributes to the development of interpretation of the text and reconstruction of the ideas expressed in the text. The article examines the possible ways of implementing the reader-response theory in a literature class, including written assignments, personal responses to a literary text and in-class discussions. The research focuses on qualitative data collection and on analyzing students’ responses to these activities. Furthermore, the research aims to provide a clearer picture of students’ attitudes, observations and personal reactions when interacting with a literary text. One of the aims of the article is to provide recommendations and suggestions regarding reader-response theory application in teaching literature courses at tertiary level, in addition to designing course curricula and selecting appropriate in-class activities.
Sharka (PPV) is one of the most dangerous viruses in fruit growing. More and more fruit growers are unsatisfied with the resistances or tolerance of plum varieties cultivated today. With the utilisation of the hypersensitive reaction to PPV in breeding we developed ‘Jojo’ as the first absolutely resistant cultivar in the field. Most interesting now is the development of new sharka-resistant cultivars, especially in three points: extension of ripening range, better fruit size, and high fruit quality. In a new breeding programme, we obtained many hypersensitive clones. After testing in different regions, some interesting resistant clones and cultivars were selected and are presented here.
In order to motivate students and create a tension free environment English language teachers implement different technological tools in the classroom. This paper aims to emphasize the importance of using video material in the classroom that facilitates ESL teaching. The study was conducted at SEEU Language Centre with 87 students’. Major ethnical groups include Macedonian, Albanian, Turkish, and Roma. The respondents’ age varies from 18-20 studying ESP classes, such as Computer Sciences 1, ESP (Public administration 1) as well as Academic and Advanced Academic English, and the research questions are: to what extent students are motivated to study English using videos, do Video presentations stimulate students’ critical thinking skills. Moreover, 8 teachers responded to the questionnaire and strongly agreed that Videos motivate students’ discussions in class.
Teaching ESP courses using audio-visual tools is especially beneficial for both students and teachers because the appropriate video material can make students more interested in the subject, more engaged as well as become more confident in communicative language learning competencies.
The development of multilateral diplomacy over the past decades, its importance that the process of multilateral diplomacy withholds in solving crises and global governance, this paper will try to evaluate the current trend of processes and critically evaluate is there hope and realistic expectation that multilateral diplomacy will become a basis for global governance in the future. There are many definitions given to the multilateralism, having in account that multilateralism within the global governance is becoming increasingly complex in its form and expressions. In doing the analysis on how much there is scope of multilateral diplomacy as basis for global governance, an overview on historical facts, international organizations and elements contributing to the global governance achievement will be touched upon. Impact and historical aspects of international organisations such as United Nations, European Union and World Trade organisations in setting the first pillars of global governance will be also elaborated, with an emphasis on impact and potential that these institutions have in global governance evolution.
Valdis Pirsko, Inese Čakstiņa, Dina Nitiša, Marija Samoviča, Zanda Daneberga and Edvīns Miklaševičs
Development of chemoresistance remains a significant limitation for the treatment of cancer and contributes to recurrence of the disease. Both intrinsic and acquired mechanisms of chemoresistance are characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) or stem-like cells (SLCs). The aim of the study was to assess the stem-like properties in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 during and after pulsed treatment with doxorubicin (DOX) in comparison to the untreated controls.The experimental cultures were exposed to therapeutic concentration of DOX for 48 hours (treatment cultures), and subcultured to post-treatment cultures 24 hours after the removal of DOX. Stem-like properties of the cellular populations in the treatment and post--treatment cultures were assessed by the expression of the stem-cell marker genes (CD24, CD44, ITGA6, ITGB1, POU5F1, NANOG, ALDH1A1), colony-formation efficiency, growth rates, and sensitivity to DOX, 5-fluorouracil (5FU), cisplatin (CIS), and vinblastine (VBL). Exposure to DOX induced formation of giant polyploid cells that persisted in the post-treatment culture. The recovery period was characterised by a decrease in the proliferation rate, viability, and cellular adherence. The post-treatment cultures displayed decreased sensitivity to DOX and increased sensitivities to 5FU, CIS, and VBL. Cells treated with DOX displayed increased expression levels of CD24, CD44, and ALDH1A, while their expression levels at least partially normalised in the post-treatment culture. The post-treatment cultures demonstrated significantly increased colony-formation ability. During treatment with sub-lethal levels of doxorubicin and during the acute recovery period, the survival mechanisms in the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 may be mediated by formation of the cellular population with stem-like properties.