Surface roughness has an important role in retarding the runoff velocity. The increase in paving blocks usage, particularly in urban areas, can change the surface roughness of the land. This study investigated the effects of four types of concrete block pavements (CBPs) in retarding the surface runoff velocity. Three design parameters based on CBP properties that considerably influenced the flow retardation were promoted. They were opening ratio (Or), void ratio (Vr) and straight channel ratio (Sr). A tilted plot equipped with a rainfall simulator was used to investigate the influence of surface slope and rainfall intensity to the flow on various CBPs. A modified dye tracing method in view was performed to monitor the surface flow velocity under various rainfall intensities. Flow retardation coefficient (Frd) were calculated based on velocity data on smooth pavement and on CBPs layer measured under the same slope and rainfall intensity. The results showed that flow retardation coefficient increased with an increase in openings ratio, rainfall intensity and surface slope. The relationship between flow retardation coefficient and all design parameters was expressed by a linear regression function. A further study is required to increase the accuracy of the model by modifying the regression function and increasing the variation of design parameters.
In the context of the Algerian energy policy, and through the review of the Algiers’ residential building stock, this paper explores the correlation between the energy consumption of gas and electricity with urban density. Based on a holistic approach of the 57 Algiers’ municipalities, the analysis is organized in two ways. Firstly, the spatial approach is conducted within a GIS implementation, carried out based on the 2013 aggregated annual energy consumption data. The cross analysis of Electricity and Gas consumption and density of population within a GIS spatial distribution approach shows effectively a strong correlation between urban density and energy consumption with a Pearson correlation of −56% and −65% of the Electricity and Gas consumption in the urban municipalities, respectively. Also, the household located in the suburban municipalities consume clearly more energy than the urban centered ones. Based on the electricity and gas consumption, density and carbon footprint we have clustered, within a PCA, the Algiers’ municipalities into three profiles: the “thrifty”, the “intermediate” and the “wasteful” profile.
Understanding space-time correlation in equilibrium matrix when force of collision involving earthquake stress strain interaction. The proposed study shows that non-linear dynamics of earthquake behaviour simulated with ant colony optimization in short timescale deformation by analysis of the stiffness matrix and the stress strain interaction process of the rock pattern. An improved ant colony optimization combined with local search is proposed for solving this complex optimization problem of finding trigger zones for earthquake occurrences. The disturbances at trigger basins for any system cause the collapse of a subsystem leading to stress evolution and slip due to strain nucleation. The stress strain network based on redistribution of stress accumulation are discretized into four states of low stress and strain and a finite element model is established to identify vertices for the stress-strain component and edges for global coupling effects have been constructed for dynamic monitoring of stress and strain behaviour at triggering zones. In this paper, an efficient algorithm is developed for the formation of null basis of triangular and rectangular plate bending finite element models, corresponding to highly sparse flexibility matrices. Triggering basins serve as harbingers of large earthquake where stress-strain interactions have been analyzed by the quasi-static mechanics of seismic precursory stress-strain propagation in the crustal lithosphere. The simulation framework shows that with time, spatial triggering points as stress varies from one point to another to identify the external influences for the body forces and the surface forces for geodynamic frameworks.
Objective of the present study is to define the dynamic mechanical response of multi-story structures acted upon by wind. Structural response is associated to the dynamically applied wind and is approached by considering its three components: static, kinematic and energy states. Proposed objective is achieved by structural dynamic analyses performed on multi-story steel structures in elastic domain. The dynamic model is the multi-degree of freedom system associated to lateral story level displacements. Dynamic forces are computed from recorded velocities of wind through a simple velocity – pressure – force transform. The matriceal differential equation of wind induced vibratory state is dealt with by both, direct integration and modal decomposition. The three components of the mechanical state are expressed via base shear force – the static state, lateral story-level displacements – the kinematic state and wind induced energy – the energy state. Modal decomposition of the dynamic response allows for immediate computation of modal contribution to the total wind response. Computed values of the parameters are numerically and graphically presented and commented. Relevant conclusions are inferred.
This paper outlines for construction specialists the concept of "passive house", presenting the actual status of research and breakthroughs within this field within the country and abroad but also the directives of the European Council and European Parliament regarding this concept. Last, but certainly not least, it showcases some of the flaws of the European Directive regarding passive houses, because it fails to bring forth viable solutions for a number of dire issues.
A. Mahavir Singh, B. I.K. Pandita and C. S.K. Kheer
A new methodology based on Principle of Quasi Work is used for calculating the deflections in plates. The basis of this methodology is concept of topologically similar systems. Present method uses a priory known solution for deflection of a simply supported plate for arriving at the deflection of any other topologically similar plate with different loading and boundary conditions. This priory known solution is herein referred to as reference equation. Present methodology is easy as deflections are obtained mostly by elementary mathematics for point loads and for other loads by integration that’s integrant is reference equation multiplied by the equation of load. In the present methodology solution of fourth order partial differential equation in two independent variables as used in lengthy and not so easy conventional method is bypassed.
The paper presents a first experimental version of the original QGIS plugin QWaveTransposition that numerically implements the geographic transposition of wave gauge data method proposed by Contini and De Girolamo (1998) for offshore wave hindcasting. The method allows one to transfer wave data measured at a given gauging station to a virtual station located offshore the area of interest, by comparing the effective fetches at both stations. The QWaveTransposition plugin was implemented in Python programming language, including the NumPy package for numerical computations. A graphical user interface was developed to manage the input/output data and model parameters. The fetch geometry at real and virtual stations can be imported by selecting appropriate vector layers from the QGIS map. An application to a sample site in southern Italy is presented for example purposes.
The contribution presents a set of seismic analyses of multi - storey steel structures with semi-rigid beam column connections acted upon by seismic actions. Semi-rigidity of the structures beam to column connections is conferred by two types of beam to column connections: top and seat and web angle (TSW) and end-plate (EP) joints. Computed numerical results are associated to two classes (static and kinematic) of seismic behaviour parameters expressing the two contradictory effects of semi-rigidity. On one hand, the lateral flexibility induces larger lateral displacements while, on the other hand, it attracts smaller base shear seismic forces. Also, the constitutive relation M − θr induced into semi- rigid beam column connections by seismic actions is presented. The results are presented in their numerical form and in a comparative graphical manner allowing for relevant comments and conclusions
This paper explores the spatial considerations and relationship between necessity of expanding lignite mining, and urban resettlements as a context for human development and security. A situation is considered fragile when objective is to implement a strategy of safe resettlement. Moreover, those situations reflect how urban resettlement can be a social displeasure, despite health hazards of actual zones. The study presented in this paper explored the Shala neighbourhood of Hade village, focussing on urban resettlements, and environmental engineering issues. The research method consists of empirical observation throughout the zone, with an accent to the areas of resettlement. In order to receive a clear data and information, research is made within spatial regulation of urban planning, focusing on the environmental features regarding to the morphology of the area, air pollution, zones for expanding lignite mining and general hazards of public health. Case study was investigated through literature review, and the data collected includes maps, composition of urban structure, attributes of space, genius loci, and mining activities. Resettlements as a phenomenon pull away very sensitive social, safety and mental issues. We employ relatively new conceptual findings of urban planning, showing that the urban resettlement to a near village Shkabaj does not fulfil social, health and environmental objectives. Based on results of new resettlement area pollution, and urban planning issues presented in this paper, location for the resettlement of Shala neighbourhood of Hade village was not appropriate: as pattern for future urban resettlements in a context for environmental security and human development