This series of articles on high risk projects looks at the example of the modernisation of hydrogen incinerators on a submarine. The article describes problems connected with the management of such a project.
Augustyn Dolatkowski, A. Szczeblewska, Lucjan Łaba and Bogdan Łokucijewski
The authors examined 104 divers performing dives in water, 14 exposed to simulated conditions in decompression chambers and 11 control subjects. The average blood sugar reading before diving amounted to 100 mg% with readings of 101 mg% after diving, whereas in the control group these readings were 107 and 100 mg% respectively and in the group of simulated dives, 102 before and 106 mg% after the exposure. It was found that the diet applied ensured a sufficiently high level blood sugar level in the subjects to protect them against hypoglycaemia. Further research in decompression chambers is required.
The problem of oxygen toxicity, and its effect on the nervous system, is an important topic with regard to the application of oxygen and breathing mixes in the pursuit of diving, as well as in the light of the striking synergy between the effects of oxygen and ionising radiation. Studies on the level of lipid peroxides were performed on rat brains. The animals were subjected to exhaustive physical strain in a pressure chamber and oxygen at the pressure between 0-3 atm for the period of 25-60 minutes. Parallel research was conducted on rested animals. Following the dissection, the brain was homogenised and the levels of lipid peroxides were determined using the Wollman method with TBA. In animals subjected to physical effort over the specified time, no deviations in the levels of lipid peroxides were observed in comparison to the control group. An increase in lipid peroxide level was noted in rats manifesting oxygen toxicity symptoms. On the basis of the above findings, the authors presume that the growth of lipid peroxides in the brain in cases subjected to hyperbaric oxygenation should be recognised as a far-reaching harmful effect of oxygen, occurring after enzymatic damage and the violation of cellular antioxidant protection. At low oxygen overpressures, no deviations in the levels of lipid peroxides were noted as compared to the control group.
Michał Żychliński, Piotr Siermontowski and Romuald Olszański
Service on a submarine is the most stressful and psychologically challenging form of military service. It is characterised by specific living and sanitaryepidemiological conditions which are far from typical. This work is based on the analyses of reports formulated from research conducted by a working environment laboratory, and on the control protocols of the sanitary supervision and control team (WOMP) Gdynia, from the Kobben submersible vessels in the years 2014 and 2015. Military Centres of Preventive Medicine hold supervision over Military Units pursuant to generally applicable regulations in the civil environment and standardised NATO norms. Measurements concern the level of noise, mechanical vibrations, chemical agents, electromagnetic radiation, physiochemical and biological water and kitchenware tests. The objective of the research is to evaluate the service conditions on a submersible vessel with regard to sanitary-epidemiological aspects such as exposure to infectious and occupational diseases. In selected stations, the conducted measurements indicate an increased level of noise, electromagnetic radiation and excess quantities of bacteria colonies on kitchenware.
Jakub Szyller, Mariusz Kozakiewicz and Piotr Siermontowski
Any stay in an environment with an increased oxygen content (a higher oxygen partial pressure, pO2) and an increased pressure (hyperbaric conditions) leads to an intensification of oxidative stress. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage the molecules of proteins, nucleic acids, cause lipid oxidation and are engaged in the development of numerous diseases, including diseases of the circulatory system, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. There are certain mechanisms of protection against unfavourable effects of oxidative stress. Enzymatic and non-enzymatic systems belong to them. The latter include, among others, heat shock proteins (HSP). Their precise role and mechanism of action have been a subject of intensive research conducted in recent years. Hyperoxia and hyperbaria also have an effect on the expression and activity of nitrogen oxide synthase (NOS). Its product - nitrogen oxide (NO) can react with reactive oxygen species and contribute to the development of nitrosative stress. NOS occurs as isoforms in various tissues and exhibit different reactions to the discussed factors. The authors have prepared a brief review of research determining the effect of hyperoxia and hyperbaria on HSP expression and NOS activity.
This series of articles presents the problems associated with the conduction of a high-risk project aimed at modernising the hydrogen combustion engines on a submarine. The article describes technical issues connected with obtaining hydrogen-air mixes.
Unexpected, abrupt death is always a great tragedy, both for a victim, as well as, for their family, friends, society or even country. However, death as a result of a suicide always seems to be unnecessary and difficult to accept by relatives. Every 40 seconds someone dies on the globe due to a kind of an auto-destruction act. Out of all suicides, the biggest group are adult men, frequently with mental disorders, who commit suicide by hanging themselves. The only suicide method where women are almost on the par with men is drowning (by many authors referred to as death by drowning).
The article demonstrates use of underwater remotely operated vehicles during an underwater visual inspection of a sunken vessel. The presented tasks were carried out in the course of underwater works performed from a Polish navy rescue vessel on the fishing boat WŁA-127. The discussed examples include a visual inspection of the sunken vessel and the support offered to Polish Navy rescue divers as they carried out underwater works.
Aleksander Sieroń, Jarosław Pasek, Mikołaj Pietrzak and Grzegorz Cieślar
For many years now we have been observing a growing number of patients with amputations performed on lower extremities due to chronic wounds occurring as a result of atherosclerotic lesions in peripheral arteries, thromboembolism as well as due to chronic ischaemia in lower extremities. Modern physical medicine is systematically enhancing treatment possibilities for patients with chronic wounds by an introduction of innovative therapeutic devices into clinical practice, which often allow to prevent amputations, accelerate the healing process, and, most of all, alleviate or completely eliminate pain. The article presents the therapeutic mechanism and methodology of one of such methods - local hyperbaric oxygen therapy with the use of a device called LASEROBARIA - S, alongside a description of its therapeutic effects in the case of two patients.
Gabriela Henrykowska, Marcin Lipiński, Maria Dziedziaczak-Buczyńska and Magdalena Zawadzka
In the past we have seen numerous cases of the purposeful utilisation of micro-organisms and toxins. This situation forced us to undertake actions aimed at a limitation of the production and storage of biological weapons. Unfortunately, despite the signing of the Convention on Biological and Chemical Weapons, many countries are still involved in research into the use of biological agents as a military resource.
The objective of the work was to perform an assessment of the knowledge of threats connected with bioterrorism as well as of the procedures in the case of a bioterrorist attack in two different urban populations - i.e. of below 50 thousand and above 500 thousand inhabitants.
The study was conducted in two towns, Nysa and Łódź. A self-designed questionnaire included 100 persons from each town, both men and women aged between 18 and 65 years. Despite the small differences between the researched populations, the knowledge of respondents concerning bioterrorist threats and procedures during an attack is insufficient.
On the basis of the obtained results we may conclude that there is a need to educate the entire society, irrespective of the place of residence, in order to raise an awareness with regard to the potential threat and procedures in the event of a bioterrorist attack.