Marin A. Marinov
Gary L. Evans
Canada is often put forward as an example of forward thinking on inclusiveness and gender balance. However, for the last 30 years, while gender diversity progress has been made within Canadian government agencies, commissions and boards (ABCs), the private sector continues to lag behind, stuck trying to break through the barrier of 18-22% females on Boards. This occurs while mounting empirical evidence clearly indicates that it is not just the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do. This paper looks at where progressive government change has generated results and potential avenues necessary to make gender equality a reality within both the government and private sector beyond 2018. The author reviews the methods used by the Canadian government to achieve gender parity, ending with some insights on how the private sector could implement gender parity without the use of quotas.
Bchr Alatassi and Steve Letza
Islamic banks are growing rapidly with annual growth rates of 17.6% between 2009 to 2013 and 19.7% from 2014 to date. This level of growth is projected to continue into the future. Islamic banks now operate in more than 75 countries with a value of approximately $920 trillion of bank assets. Islamic banks are increasingly being seen as good long-term value propositions and are serving both Muslim and non-Muslim customers across international markets. Despite the rapid growth in Islamic finance, the underpinning corporate governance rules and regulations are at an embryonic stage of development with little attention having been paid to them. The purpose of this paper is to help fill that gap by exploring a conceptual model of corporate governance for Islamic banks based on both Islamic finance principles while fused with elements of corporate governance standards from Western theories and codes, primarily the UK, and thereby ensure that good governance is in place in Islamic banks. The paper links the predominant corporate governance theories of Principal/Agent, Stakeholder and Stewardship with practice based corporate governance codes and explores the potential of applying stewardship theory to Islamic banks. Islamic principles emphasis is on real assets rather than debt as is the case in Western Banks and as a consequence this paper offers the conclusion that the more prudent approach to banking used by Islamic banks could be used as a model for Western banks and thereby deliver a more sustainable future and maintain confidence in banks and substitute for the need for taxpayer support, such as the guaranteed deposit scheme, which acts as a backstop under the Western approach.
Natalia Scacun and Irina Voronova
The article represents the bibliometric analysis of risk assessment in Baltic countries relying on scientific database. The purpose of this analysis is to study trends and development of scientific research when evaluating financial risks as well as reveal resources with high impact to apply content analysis that could be used for future research on the topic. The applied investigation methods were chosen based on the analysis of existing scientometric data: the number and dynamics of published documents; their subject area and type; territory/country; source title; affiliation; authors; h-index; citation overview followed by search results as well as adopting search references to reveal the used and cited documents. The authors also present the applied deduction of trends between enterprise death rate in Latvia, Lithuania, and Estonia and the number of documents in the referenced period. This study demonstrates that the amount of research increased significantly when countries face rises in enterprise death rates.
Valentīna Bizņa, Māris Jurušs, Tālis Laizāns and Roberts Šnikvalds
Though there are a number of data and studies about the impact of tax incentives on investment, research and development, no detailed and systematic analysis has been elaborated on the effectiveness of taxation of profit to the financial performance of businesses in general. Businesses avoid corporate income tax to get more net profit. Evasion leads to economic stagnation. It is time to call for changes of the corporate income tax system and introduce tax suspension - tax only shared profit. The aim of the research is to assess the impact of corporate income tax suspension on retained corporate income. The research extends applicable theoretical foundation and comprehension of elements and factors affecting firms’ behaviour. The results show that the corporate income tax reform would change capital structure of businesses and improve company’s sustainability. The findings also give grounds for the development of an applicable model that would help government authorities choose the most effective way of taxation of corporate income.
Darja Kukovec, Matjaž Mulej and Simona Šarotar Žižek
Successful internal communication in an intercultural environment depends on the organizational culture, business environment, social responsibility, and leaders’ skills. Thus, internal communication and employee adaptation to changing business environments ask what a successful socially responsible internal communication requires. This contribution discusses theoretical foundations of qualitative research, how the organizational culture can define which direction the organization should chose to attain social responsibility, and how internal communication can improve understanding of professional language and be decisive in a working environment. The generated model offers insights into understanding social responsibility and organizational culture to improve internal communication.
In the study, three selected personality traits were tested for their impact on Slovenian accountants’ attitudes toward accounts manipulation behavior. The main objective was to investigate if personality plays a role in how Slovenian accountants think and feel about this ethically problematic business practice. Responses from 310 chief accounting officers of Slovenian medium- and largesize companies were gathered via electronic survey, and correlational and regression analyses were performed to investigate relationships between selected personality traits and participants responses to the scenario, thus depicting accounts manipulation behavior in violation of generally accepted accounting principles. Only two of the observed personality traits (Machiavellianism and agreeableness) were found to be statistically significantly related to accountants’ attitudes, while the third one (locus of control) shows no such relationship. For both, Machiavellianism and agreeableness, the direction of the relationship with accountants’ attitudes is the same. The higher the levels of accountants’ Machiavellianism and agreeableness, the more positive their attitude toward observed accounts manipulation behavior.
Maja Rožman, Sonja Treven and Marijan Cingula
The main objective of the paper is to determine the impact of behavioral symptoms of burnout of older employees on their work engagement in large- and mediumsized companies in Slovenia. The research is based on the implementation of a factor analysis by which we wanted to reduce the large number of variables into a smaller number of factors. With those factors, we performed a simple linear regression. Based on the results, we confirmed the hypothesis that behavioral symptoms of burnout of older employees have a statistically significant negative impact on their work engagement. Well-being of employees of varying ages in the workplace is key for long-term effectiveness of companies. From this point of view, companies should apply appropriate measures to reduce burnout as well as to contribute to employees’ well-being and better workplace performance, which is reflected in work engagement of employees.
Vito Bobek, Anita Maček, Sarah Bradler and Tatjana Horvat
To intervene against discriminatory in the workplace is tremendously important because discriminatory practices have an enormous economic impact, along with a severe impact on psychological health, which can result in illnesses such as depression and burnout. Such intervention requires a multidimensional approach, including the whole organization and a systematic procedure. The aim of this paper is to offer suggestions on how to reduce discrimination in the workplace in Austria and Taiwan. To reach this aim, a qualitative study was conducted. It showed that education, active positioning of companies, leadership and diligent selection of employees, discussion and analysis, psychological support, governmental policies, and aspects of language and talking gender-wise are the most important steps to decrease or eliminate discrimination in the workplace.
Jelena Nikolić and Dejana Zlatanović
Respecting the importance of corporate governance (CG), particularly various corporate governance mechanisms for improving corporate social responsibility (CSR) activities, the paper highlights relevant CG–CSR synergies from the perspective of systems thinking. The paper further aims to demonstrate the ways in which selected systems methodologies can support CG–CSR synergies. Accordingly, we selected appropriate systems methodologies, such as dialectical systems theory, soft systems methodology, and system dynamics. We defined the dialectical system, consisting of essential corporate governance mechanisms, which contribute to CSR; we also identified the key stakeholders and their perceptions of CG–CSR relations through CATWOE analysis; thus, the appropriate root definition and conceptual model, including the activities that are relevant for CG–CSR relations, were developed. Developed systemic framework provided a relevant methodological support to highlight the various issues of corporate governance, such as institutional framework, market for corporate control, ownership structure, board structure, and their contribution to CSR.