The paper presents the results of analysis concerning the impact of temperature on sedimentation in the caustic soda solution that constitute a contamination after the process of cleaning utensils and pipes for hopped wort transport in the brewery. The solution was collected from the production plant after the process of cleaning and subjected to 12-hour sedimentation and changes of the solid particles participation, their size and percentage share in the solution was determined. The study was carried out with the Shadow Sizing method. The results were subjected to statistical analysis and the surface area of the response of the relation between the time and temperature of sedimentation and the number of particles which stay in the solution was calculated. The research results proved that the temperature significantly affects the cleaning degree of solutions by sedimentation and its duration. After sedimentation in solutions, particles with the surface area from 0.001-0.003 mm2 remain. Those particles are not subject to sedimentation and constitute a coloidal suspension in the solution.
Zygmunt Owsiak, Krzysztof Lejman, Krzysztof Pieczarka and Tomasz Sekutowski
The paper presents the outcomes of the research on the impact of shearing depth and flexibility of cultivator tines with cultivator points on the value of vertical forces acting thereon. The object of the research consisted in “S” tines with the flexibility coefficient of 0.0061; 0.0711; 0.0953 and 0.1406 m∙kN−1. The investigations were carried out in field conditions in sandy clay soil with moisture of 11.2%. The forces were measured for the assumed shearing depths which were 5, 9 and 13 cm at the shearing speed of 3 m∙s−1. A stand for measurement of forces acting on soil shearing tools in the field conditions was used. It was found out that the increase of the shearing depth causes a linear increase of the vertical force, but the force gradient decreases with the growth of the tine flexibility. Moreover, it was found out that the increase of the tine flexibility at the beginning causes the increase and then the decrease of the vertical force regardless the shearing depth. The impact of flexibility on the vertical force value was described with the parabola equation. The tines flexibility, at which the highest value of vertical force may be expected, grows with the reduction of the shearing depth.
Alhossein Mohamed, Peng Qiyuan and Malik Muneeb Abid
Introduction. Station route allocation plan is an important extension of the train running diagram and the both are closely intertwined so the overall research on the synergetic preparation method is more beneficial in improving the preparation quality of the train running diagram and providing better service for passengers. Therefore, the research topic has practical significance.
Methodology. Based on extensive literatures, this paper studies the synergetic preparation method of train running diagram and station route allocation plan in detail and analyses their association for providing a theoretical basis for the synergetic preparation method.
Results. This work introduces the synergetic, analyses the systematic characteristics of the operation organization system of high speed railway and puts forward the optimization strategy of train running diagram and station route allocation plan.
Conclusions. The work provides the solution for the preparation of the train running diagram and station route allocation plan by solving the examples based on the relevant optimization factors, such as train running in districts and train arrangement.
The promotion of walking has become a global strategy in sustainable urban transportation planning. This is with the aim of reducing the urban commuter’s problems that result from the dominance of motorized urban transit, especially in developing countries with an increasing rate of urbanization. This study is carried out in Calabar, Southern Nigeria with the aim of assessing the conditions under which pedestrianism is enhanced. Research questionnaires were administered to household heads in all 22 localities with political delineation (wards) in the city. Respondents were sampled using the stratified sampling technique where every 10th residential house is sampled after the initial listing of houses. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to predict the conditions under which about 382 household heads (about 98% respondent rate) in Calabar could undertake utilitarian walking using factors such as motorized traffic, weather conditions, lack of safety of pedestrians and socio-economic variables as category predictors. A test of the full model against a constant single model was statistically significant, indicating that the predictors, as a set, reliably distinguished utilitarian walking and non-walking (chi square = 60.544, p < .001 with df = 17). Nagelkerke’s R2 of .232 indicated a moderately strong relationship between prediction and grouping. Prediction success overall was 70.5% (53.5% for non-walking, and 81.5% for walking). The Wald criterion demonstrated that only pedestrian conflict, lack of safety of pedestrian and the age of the pedestrian made a significant contribution to the prediction in model 1 (p = .000). Furthermore, about 99.2% of pedestrians indicated walking distances of not more than 5km while on the other hand, they can afford 0.8km to bus station, 3km to school, 5km for shopping, and about 20km for recreation trips. The study recommended counseling strategies for promoting pedestrianism among which is the development of pedestrian walkways and complementary facilities to enhance pedestrian safety and comfort.
Elijah Oladimeji Aina, Alex Folami Adisa, Tajudeen Mukaila Adeniyi Olayanju and Salami Olasunkanmi ismaila
The thick vesicant oil liquid contained in the shell of cashew nut, called cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL), has been known for its innumerable applications in chemical industries. Performance evaluation of a newly developed CNSL expeller was carried out to determine the effect of moisture content and pressing duration on extraction parameters. The nut shells were grouped as A: 14.00-16.99%, B: 17.00-19.99% and C: 20.00-22.99% (w.b.) moisture content at 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 minutes pressing time and combination of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 kg of cashew nut shells. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for the stastical analysis. The best mass of liquid extracted, best extraction efficiency and best percentage oil recovery occured at pressing duration of 10 minutes and moisture content of 14.00-16.99% (w.b.), while the best machine capacity was at pressing duration of 2 minutes and moisture content of 14.00-16.99% (w.b.). Results showed that the effects of the pressing duration and moisture content on mass of liquid extracted, machine capacity, extraction efficiency and percentage liquid recovery were significant at 0.05. Meanwhile, the effects of the pressing duration and moisture contents were not significant for the feed rate. Increase in the pressing duration at decreasingthe moisture content resulted in the increase in the mass of liquid extracted, extraction efficiency and percentage liquid recovery while increase in pressing duration and moisture content resulted in decrease in machine capacity of the expeller.
Arkadiusz Matysiak, Agnieszka Wójtowicz and Tomasz Oniszczuk
The aim of the research was to determine the effect of extrusion conditions (various moisture content of raw materials and screw rotation speed), as well as the effect of recipe composition on the process efficiency and the energy consumption during treatment of potato and multigrain products. The efficiency of the extrusion process (Q) was determined by the mass of the product obtained at a given time for all prepared raw material mixtures and the process parameters used, while the specific mechanical energy demand was determined using the SME index. The obtained results allow to conclude that the level of raw materials moisture content had a greater impact on the efficiency and energy consumption of the extrusion process than the variable screw speed during the treatment. The efficiency of the process increased with the increasing moisture of the tested compositions, while a decrease in the requirements of SME was observed. The use of differentiated raw material compositions also influenced the Q and SME values determined during the tests.
Davidich Natalia, Halina Faletska, Galkin Andrii, Melenchuk Tatyana, Chumachenko Igor and Davidich Yurii
The significance of the criteria for assessing the quality of the urban passenger transport is investigated in the article. The results of the processing of field studies have identified factors that can be used for the assessment of the quality of the projects of urban passenger transport. The method of estimation of indicators of quality for the passengers during the trip is given and the values of weighting coefficients of individual quality indicators for the elements of the trip are determined. The method of determining the complex quality indicator during the performance of the trips in the projects of public transport is developed. It is shown that the trip components influence the quality of passenger trips in the following order: waiting time at the stop, time of the pedestrian part of the trip, travel time, dynamic coefficient of capacity utilization.
Ashfaq U. Rehman, Azizul Hakim, Khalid Khan and Ihsan Ullah Khan
The objectives of the study were to measure the efficiency in trade and transport through China Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC) and to ascertain efficiency in trade and economic development through developed transport infrastructures. The present study was conducted in Peshawar, Pakistan. The data was collected from the relevant developing sectors and stakeholders through CPEC including investors of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Chamber of Commerce and Peshawar Railway Station track employees. Majority of bi-variate analysis through chi-square test result showed that there was a strong and significant association between the project of CPEC and efficiency in trade and transport in terms of economy. Similarly, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport routes through CPEC and smooth transportation of goods and services. Furthermore, a strong and significant association was found between CPEC project and improvement in travelling potential. Similarly, a significant association was found between development in transport infrastructure and fastness and reliability in business travelling. In the same way, a significant association was found between CPEC and increase in the geographical size of the labour market. As in the chain, a strong and significant association was found between the development of transport infrastructures through CPEC and increase in labour force productivity along with an increase in the range of choice of individual and firms. This could come true that CPEC as a project would ensure smooth efficiency transportation of trade goods and services in terms of reducing time distance and cost. CPEC as a project should not be only limited to economic activities, rather it should contribute to the overall socio-economic development of the region.
For new railway bridges with short spans (L ≤ 35.00 m) superstructures with steel beams embedded in concrete are recommended or used, which can ensure the requirements of strength and stiffness in particular, regardless of velocity. They are built relatively easily compared to reinforced concrete structures or steel structures, they have high durability if designed, built and maintained correctly and don’t have high sensitivity to fatigue degradation in service. They are also used for road bridges when it is desired to achieve a reduced construction height.
In all the design prescriptions used so far for structures with steel beams embedded in concrete, the calculation is a simplified one, made on a single insulated longitudinal beam of the deck, if certain conditions related to the geometry of the structure are met (obliquity, curvature). Simplifications are also made regarding the state of deformation of the decks made in this constructive solution by introducing an effective moment of inertia in the displacement calculation, as an average of the inertia moments of the cross section considered to be cracked and respectively un-cracked.
The article aims to validate steel and concrete elasto-plastic models, based on an experiment from the technical literature, necessary for complex analyses of the percentage of concrete involved in the stiffness of the cross-sections, in case of bridges with steel beams embedded in concrete.
The rutting and cracking of pavements has become very common problem in India. Also the quantity of plastic waste has significantly increased in the recent year due to industrialization and population growth. Improper disposal of these plastic wastes has caused various environmental problems, hence the alternative use of waste plastic in bituminous concrete for road construction has been encouraged by the community. In the present study the Indirect Tensile Strength Test has been carried out on Marshall Samples confirming to ASTM D6931-12. Three different processes (dry process, wet process and combined process) of mixing of waste plastic were used during experimentation. It was found that the indirect tensile strength (ITS) and tensile strength ratio (TSR) of sample significantly increase up to 8%, 6% and 12% for dry process, wet process and combined process respectively for LDPE and HDPE type of waste plastic.