Browse

You are looking at 51 - 60 of 1,215 items for :

  • Microbiology and Virology x
Clear All
Open access

R. E. Antia and J. Ogunsola

Abstract

A modified agyrophil technique was applied to peripheral blood smears to determine the mean AgNOR counts (MAC) of lymphocytes and ultimately assess the state of the lymphoid system in various clinical conditions of dogs. Fifty dogs, from clinically normal to pets with leukaemia, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were recruited. Blood smears from each dog were stained with routine Romanowsky and modified agyrophil stains. Signalment, clinical diagnoses and hematologic parameters of the dogs were related to the MAC. An AgNOR proliferative index (AgPI) — percentage of lymphocytes with 3 or more AgNORs, was determined, and correlated with MAC. The statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. MAC ranged from 1.17 in clinically healthy patients to 6.00 in leukaemic patients. The MAC was 2.00 in patients (n = 26) with lymphocyte counts within reference intervals (900—2400 per microliter); 2.23 in patients (n = 4) with lymphopenia; 2.18 in patients with lymphocytosis (n = 18) and 4.73 in patients (n = 4) with lymphocytic leukemia. Also, the MAC was 2.00 in non-anemic dogs while it was 2.47, 2.49 and 3.06 in patients with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. The MAC correlated strongly with AgPI (r = 0.91). The ancillary AgNOR technique provides a cheaper, more rapid and sensitive tool than routine lymphocyte counts in assessing the state of lymphoid proliferation in a variety of conditions in the dog.

Open access

T. A. Ajadi and M. O. Olaniyi

Abstract

A nine weeks old female Large White piglet which was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, with a complaint of extra limbs was diagnosed with pygomelia and concurrent true hermaphroditism based on gross morphologic features, radiography, exploratory laparotomy and histopathology of the malformed organs. The piglet had two well-developed extra hind limbs consisting of the femur, tibia, fibula and the phalanges. Radiographically, the accessory limbs were attached to the ischium through a rudimentary pelvic bone. The supernumerary limbs were smaller than the normal appendages, but contained equal digits. The anal orifice was observed cranial to the right supernumerary limb. Caudal to the left supernumerary limb a rudimentary penis was observed. Two oval shaped fibrous masses were palpated in the inguinal canal of the piglet. In addition, there was a transparent tubular tract measuring 24 cm in length which contained serous fluid. The right kidney was rudimentary measuring 2.10 cm, while the left kidney appeared hypertrophied measuring 6.10 cm. The histology of the left kidney showed dysplastic areas of undifferentiated mesenchymal stroma in the cortex and medulla with the presence of groups of immature glomeruli in the cortex. The tubules in the medulla were scanty in number and had atypical epithelium. The adrenal glands had normal architecture with ectopic adrenal tissue in the adrenal capsule, while the ovaries and uterus were normal. It was concluded that the complex anomalies in the piglet might be as a result of a complex mode of inheritance.

Open access

Marcin Weiner, Wioletta Żukiewicz-Sobczak, Małgorzata Tokarska-Rodak, Dorota Plewik, Anna Pańczuk, Marta Siłuch, Jerzy Zagórski, Paweł Sobczak, Tomasz Chmielewski, Stanisława Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Mariia Shkilna, Mykhailo Korda, Ivan Klisch, Mykhailo Andreychyn and Mariana Pavliuk

Abstract

Introduction: Lyme borreliosis/Lyme disease is caused by Borrelia burgdorferi and is one of the most common vector-borne diseases transmitted by ticks.

Material and Methods: A total of 136 Ixodes ricinus ticks, collected in the Ternopil (Ukraine) region, including 126 adults (70 females and 56 males), and 10 nymphs were examined. The identification of the species and their developmental form was based on morphological characteristics.

Results: PCR with B5S-Bor and 23S-Bor primers resulted in Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato DNA amplification among six ticks (4.4%). The detailed analysis based on the DNA sequencing showed the presence of DNA of Borrelia afzelii in four samples; the remaining two represented Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato complex, although their genospecies were not determined. The research confirmed the dominance of Borrelia afzelii genospecies in the ticks from Ukraine.

Conclusion: It seems reasonable to undertake similar research in ticks from other regions of Ukraine. Knowledge in this field can be useful for public health and planning the prevention of tick-borne diseases.

Open access

F. Zigo, M. Vasiľ, L. Takáč, M. Zigová and J. Elečko

Abstract

Relatively large parts of the Slovak territory are marginal regions, which in terms of the economy of ruminant rearing can effectively produce animal commodities only occasionally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and aetiology of mastitis during one milking season in two sheep dairy herds of 224 (A) and 270 (B) ewes situated in the marginal parts of Slovakia. A complex examination of health status of ewes based on: the clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk with the California mastitis test (CMT) and the bacteriological analysis of raw milk samples from individual halves were carried out at the beginning (April) and at the end (September) of the milking season. The prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the herds of ewes (A and B) were 19.1 % and 14.3 %, respectively. In both herds we confirmed predominantly the subclinical forms of IMI. The highest percentages of aetiological agents were determined for coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus piscifermentans and Staphylococcus intermedius, the occurrences of which were determined in 41 (48.2 %) and 37 (47.9 %) positive milk samples, respectively.

Open access

Gustavo A. Roa López, Jhon Jairo Suárez, Paola Barato and Noel Verján García

Abstract

Introduction: Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) is a γ-herpesvirus associated with various neoplasms in humans and is a probable aetiological agent in breast cancer; however, a causal relationship has not yet been established. Because of the epidemiological and clinicopathological similarities between breast cancer and canine mammary tumours, dogs have been proposed as a valid model for breast cancer.

Material and Methods: A total of 47 canine mammary gland tumour tissues were processed by routine histopathological technique with haematoxylin-eosin staining and classified according to the type of neoplasm. DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues and the EBNA-1 gene and the BamHI-W region specific for EBV were evaluated by nested PCR.

Results: The histopathological evaluation revealed 2 benign neoplasms, and many carcinomas: 2 in situ, 9 simple, 3 solid, 10 complex, and 21 mixed. One sample was positive for the EBNA-1 gene, while all were negative for the BamHI-W region.

Conclusion: No association was found between EBV and mammary tumours in dogs. However, here we report for the first time the presence of an EBV gene sequence in a canine mammary tumour. It is likely that detection of EBV might be affected by the quality and quantity of DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tissues. Additional studies are necessary to establish any association of EBV with mammary gland cancer in humans and in dogs, which could eventually lead to better public health prevention and control.

Open access

Teresa Kamińska-Gibas, Ilgiz Irnazarow, Joanna Szczygieł and Patrycja Jurecka

Abstract

Introduction: Genes related to iron metabolism play an important role in inflammatory response. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of ferritin, transferrin receptors 1a and 1b, and transferrin genes in the response to blood parasite infection in common carp (Cyprinuscarpio L.).

Material and Methods: Two genetically distinct carp groups were used: R3 carp, which are established as being sensitive to parasitic infection, and SA carp (Cyprinus carpio haematopterus) of wild origin. An established challenge model with Trypanoplasma borreli was applied. Challenged carp were sampled to determine their expression levels of transferrin receptors 1a and 1b, ferritin, and transferrin mRNA. Mortality and serum iron concentration were also measured.

Results: The study revealed contrasting differences in the expression profiles of all key iron regulatory genes except the transferrin gene. In the case of other parameters, significant differences were also observed.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the level of parasitic infection depends on the blood iron status. This parameter was related to the origin of the fish.

Open access

Ge Bai, Hui Li, Yansong Ge, Qianzhen Zhang, Jiantao Zhang, Mingzi Chen, Tao Liu and Hongbin Wang

Abstract

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) against liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury.

Material and Methods: Eighteen miniature pigs were randomly divided into three groups: a sham operated group (sham group, laparoscopic liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury group (IRI group), and a hydrogen-rich saline intervention group (IRI + HRS group). Samples of hepatic tissue and serum were collected at the time of reperfusion and then 3 h, 1 d, and 3 d post reperfusion. Liver function, oxidative stress, autophagy-related mRNA genes, and protein expression were evaluated. Changes in cell and tissue ultrastructure were examined by transmission electron microscopy.

Results: Compared with the sham group, the level of autophagy of hepatocytes increased in the IRI and IRI + HRS groups, corresponding to high oxidative stress and severe liver function injury. Liver function, antioxidant content, autophagy levels, and liver injury were improved after intervention with HRS in the IRI + HRS group compared with the IRI group.

Conclusion: Intervention with hydrogen-rich saline could exert a protective effect against liver ischaemia-reperfusion combined resection injury through the reduction of oxidative stress and hepatocyte autophagy.

Open access

D. Marcinčáková, N. Červeňáková and M. Miłek

Abstract

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) of the Asteraceae family is known for its pharmacological effects and has been used in therapy for centuries. Currently extracts of all parts of this plant are used — root, leaves and flowers. The extracts are prepared using various extraction agents that may significantly affect the effectiveness and therapeutic spectrum of the extracts. The aim of this study was to use three different solvents for the preparation of the extracts from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves and flowers, namely triton X-100 (2 %), nonidet P-40 (2 %) and acetone (30 %). After extraction, the extractants were evaporated and the dried extracts were dissolved in water to obtain a series of solutions of the concentrations: 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg.ml–1. The biological effects of the extracts were investigated by means of the MTT test of cell viability. Rabbit kidney epithelial cells (RK13) exposed to the extracts for 24 and 48 hours were used as a model cell line. We observed that the acetone extract of dandelion leaves and flowers at lower concentrations caused an increase in the viability of the treated cells in comparison with the control cells which were not exposed to the extracts (P < 0.05). At the same time, we observed a significant effect of the solvent used for the preparation of the dry extracts on the viability of the cells. The residues of the extractants caused a decrease in the cell viability almost to zero, which in fact means the death of the cells. The selection of the correct extractant for the preparation of the extracts is essential regarding the use of extracts in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.

Open access

E. Marettová and M. Maretta

Abstract

The bovine mammary gland is a special gland characterized by high secretory activity. During lactation the cellular and fibrous components of the interstitial tissue septa are exposed to store accumulated secretory products. The aim of this study was to find and study the cells in the stroma of the bovine lactating mammary gland. For this purpose, the immunohistochemical methods and antibodies against the smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin were used. The myoepithelial cells (MEC) which stained with smooth muscle actin (SMA), were found supporting the secretory units and the intralobular ducts. Coexpression of the SMA and desmin were found in the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. The fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and free cells positive to vimentin were located in the connective tissue septa. The results of this study on the mammary glands indicated that smooth muscle cells (SMC) were altered in the lactating mammary gland, with additional cells such as fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) participated in the storage and after milk let-down they allowed the mammary glands to return to their original state.

Open access

Hadi Eftekhari, Alireza Jahandideh, Ahmad Asghari, Abolfazl Akbarzadeh and Saeed Hesaraki

Abstract

Introduction: In recent years, the use of bone scaffolds as bone tissue substitutes, especially the use of such as hydroxyapatite and tricalcium phosphate, has been very popular. Today, the use of modern engineering techniques and advances in nanotechnology have expanded the use of nanomaterials as bone scaffolds for bone tissue applications.

Material and Methods: This study was performed on 60 adult male New Zealand rabbits divided into four experimental groups: the control group without any treatment, the second group receiving hydroxyapatite, the third group treated with β-tricalcium phosphate, and the fourth group receiving nanocomposite polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffold. In a surgical procedure, a defect 6 mm in diameter was made in a hind limb femur. Four indexes were used to assess histopathology, which were union index, spongiosa index, cortex index, and bone marrow.

Results: The results showed that nanocomposite PCL and control groups always had the respective highest and lowest values among all the groups at all time intervals. The histopathological assessment demonstrated that the quantity of newly formed lamellar bone in the nanocomposite PCL group was higher than in other groups.

Conclusion: All these data suggest that PCL had positive effects on the bone healing process, which could have great potential in tissue engineering and clinical applications.