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Irena Palić, Ksenija Dumičić and Barbara Grofelnik

Abstract

Personal income taxation remains an ongoing issue in Croatia. It is used as an important instrument of income redistribution. Moreover, it directly affects purchasing power of the working population. Numerous changes have been made in this type of taxation since the establishment of Croatian tax system. The aim of this paper is to analyse possible determinants of personal income taxation in Croatia. After offering brief insight into public finance theory regarding personal income taxation, the structure of personal income taxation in Croatia is explained. The empirical analysis of the determinants of personal income taxation in Croatia is conducted using cointegration analysis. Economic conditions, average monthly wage, and number of taxpayers are used as determinants of personal income tax used in this research. The cointegration analysis is conducted using monthly data from January 2008 to February 2016. The results of the research show a statistically significant negative impact of economic conditions and statistically significant positive impact of average monthly wage and number of taxpayers on personal income taxation in long run, what is in line with economic and public finance theory.

Open access

Sunday Adekunle Aduloju and Sunday Stephen Ajemunigbohun

Abstract

This paper examines the relationship between ceding office gross premium income, underwriting profit and financial stability. The study made use of primary and secondary data. The primary data were obtained from 246 respondents selected from those companies through the use of structured questionnaire. The secondary data obtained from the 2014 and 2015 published financials of the selected ten companies were used to determine the Reinsurance Ceded Ratio (RCR), Return on Asset (ROA), Return on Equity (ROE) as well as the Ratio of Reinsurance Recoverables to Policyholders Surplus (RRPHS). A descriptive research design was employed. The sampling technique adopted was purposive in nature. The study population comprises 56 insurance companies in Nigeria. More so, data collected was analysed using correlation analytical method. The results of this study are quite in line with previous studies and show that reinsurance purchase increases significantly the insurers’ premium income. It is also shown that profitability of the firm is sensitive to change in reinsurance utilisation and has a positive relationship with it. It was established in the study that purchasing reinsurance reduces insurers’ insolvency risk by stabilizing loss experience and increasing capacity. Recommendations were made.

Open access

Olha Prokopenko and Vitaliy Omelyanenko

Abstract

The article deals with global experience in analysing the priorities based on their importance for country development and on national and international criteria using algorithm for the selection process. The main aspects of the process of development and implementation of international technology strategies were considered. The authors prove that through the analysis of innovation systems at macro level decision about the priorities in optimization with the aim to improve regulations in science, technology and innovation is provided. The main techniques and decisions were considered based on foresight-studies. Authors propose to create informative and analytical system for the foresight aims.

Open access

Indrė Brazauskaitė and Viltė Auruškevičienė

Abstract

The current research depicts the relationship between new product innovativeness and its performance, which was addressed in previous studies; yet the results remain contradictive with little focus on environmental settings. The paper aims to reveal the role of commercial environment towards new product performance, which allows forecasting the performance on the basis of expected settings and exploring the link between new product innovativeness and its performance in a more detailed way. In the study, moderating environmental settings are defined as a set of marketplace characteristics on market level, company commercial characteristics, and a set of sales channel characteristics on retailer’s category level. Research contributes to the following areas: reveals the role of environment towards performance and allows forecasting new product performance on the basis of expected settings.

Open access

Valentas Gružauskas and Mantas Vilkas

Abstract

The trend for e-commerce, estimated population size to 11 billion by 2050, and an increase in urbanization level to 70 % is requiring to re-think the current supply chain. These trends changed the distribution process: delivery distances are decreasing, the product variety is increasing, and more products are being sold in smaller quantities. Therefore, the concept of supply chain resilience has gained more recognition in recent years. The scientific literature analysis conducted by the authors indicate several capabilities that influence supply chain resilience. Collaboration, flexibility, redundancy and integration are the most influential capabilities to supply chain resilience. However, the authors identify that the combination of these capabilities to supply chain resilience is under researched. The authors indicate that by combining these capabilities with the upcoming technologies of industry 4.0, supply chain resilience can be achieved. In the future, the authors are planning to conduct further research to identify the influence of these capabilities to supply chain resilience, to quantify supply chain resilience, and to provide further practices of industry 4.0 concept usage for supply chain resilience.

Open access

Walter Amedzro St-Hilaire and Catherine De La Robertie

Abstract

Healthcare projects with apparent productivity gaps require all available IT innovation mechanisms. The objective of this study is to investigate the predictors of the development of IT innovation mechanisms to improving healthcare business. This includes the utilization of the panel data in healthcare projects and the analysis of the relationship between IT innovation mechanisms and operational decision-making. The paper indicates that the implementation of innovative IT technology has a significant positive effect on the healthcare project productivity in Canadian hospitals.

Open access

David Havíř

Abstract

Nowadays, customer experience is receiving much attention in scientific and managerial community. Scholars and practitioners state that customer experience is the next area of competition. For a long time, there has been a call for a uniform, accurate definition, definition of its components, and the development of the customer experience frameworks. As this topic is new, there has been a considerable fragmentation. The question is if the fragmentation is still present and how can we address it. The aim of this paper is to summarize research on customer experience analysis and to explore and compare the dimensions describing customer experience listed in seven conceptual models with findings from 17 research projects on customer experience conducted after the year 2010. The purpose of this is to summarize recent knowledge, get the most comprehensive view on customer experience and its possible decomposition, and to reveal possible relationships between the dimensions. Based on a review of the available literature, the paper juxtaposes several approaches to customer experience analysis and compares their results to find similarities and differences among them. In the first step, the dimensions and factors of the customer experience were extracted from the seven models to analyze customer experience and they were compared with each other. This resulted in a set of dimensions and factors. In the next step, customer experience factors and dimensions were extracted from 17 practical research papers on customer experience. Finally, based on their descriptions and found similarities, the dimensions and factors were put together into several groups, as this grouping and creation of the new universal set of dimensions might solve the fragmentation issue.

Open access

Scott William Hegerty

Abstract

For centuries, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania have enjoyed historic and economic ties with their Nordic neighbors in the Baltic Sea region. While the period since 1991 has been one of increased integration with the European Union, trade linkages with Finland and Sweden are particularly strong for Estonia and Latvia, respectively. This study addresses these connections by applying time-series econometric techniques, with the goal of highlighting where regional connections are strongest. Strong Nordic-Baltic linkages, while providing evidence that historical factors are still important, might also suggest that integration with the rest of the EU is relatively weak. Using quarterly data from 1994 to 2014 for Baltic, Nordic, and other partner countries, business cycles are modeled for output, consumption, and investment. Common regional cycles are also extracted via Principal Components Analysis for the three Baltic countries and for the Nordic countries of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden. Cross-correlation functions are then generated for various cycle pairs to assess whether any are “synchronized.” One key finding is that the Nordic region has two possible consumption cycles that behave in very different ways, suggesting that this region does not behave as a coherent whole. Norway and Denmark drive one cycle, while Sweden and Finland drive the other. Another key result is that each Baltic country behaves differently from one another. While regional differences are quite large - making it harder to describe this as a single “region” at all - Estonia does show significant connections to Finland, its historic and linguistic neighbor.

Open access

Raminta Jokubauskienė and Rimgailė Vaitkienė

Abstract

In the scientific literature, open innovation is one of the most effective means to innovate and gain a competitive advantage. In practice, there is a variety of open innovation activities, but, nevertheless, customers stand as the cornerstone in this area, since the customers’ knowledge is one of the most important sources of new knowledge and ideas. Evaluating the context where are the interactions of open innovation and customer knowledge enablement, it is necessary to take into account the importance of customer knowledge management. Increasingly it is highlighted that customers’ knowledge management facilitates the creation of innovations. However, it should be an examination of other factors that influence the open innovation, and, at the same time, customers’ knowledge management. This article presents a theoretical model, which reveals the assumptions of open innovation process and the impact on the firm’s performance.

Open access

Andreas Polk and Andreja Primec

Abstract

We use an institutional approach to analyze differences and similarities between competition policy regimes in Slovenia and Germany. We first indicate differences that exist in the implementation of EU competition law at the national level, given the unified framework of EU competition policy. In a next step, we discuss recent cases in both countries and indicate how historical developments and economic factors influence decision making and case law. We also discuss recent developments of the national competition policy regimes and indicate how the digital economy might shape competition policy in the future.