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Open access

Stefanos Koffas

Abstract

Social movements, as collective entities, develop to stand up against the existing institutional status quo with a view to its reformation or radical transformation, while the degree to which they are political depends on wider socio-political factors. The diverse action that evolved through their organized mobilization marked the radical transformation of political response, but also the type of state intervention. Social movements exactly because they constitute wider socio-political undertakings that aim to bring about changes in the social, political, economic but also cultural processes, which seek to annul or sideline established standardizations, are considered one of the most readily available ways to express political and social claims; here they are understood to be dynamic interventions in institutionally and structurally complete social systems as in the case of the social state. Within the context of political mobilization and collective social action, social movements functioned at two interrelated levels: the level of expansion, but also of redefinition of social intervention processes in order to achieve the goals of the social state, and the cultural level, a symbolic promotion, in order to establish a greater degree of social justice. Mobilization of resources, collective behaviour for making claims, even contentious action and transaction with institutions and authorities, constitute views of social transformation and political process in the context of the creation and development of the social state.

Open access

Jaydeep Balakrishnan and Chun Hung Cheng

Abstract

Given the creation of different types of knowledge propositions in project and production management, we discuss what we call ‘evangelical’ propositions and what as knowledge intermediaries our role should be in its dissemination. We examine both proposition accuracy as well as the process by which the proposition was arrived at. We suggest strategies for knowledge intermediaries to adopt in order to achieve balance in evaluating these developments. Further, we support our suggestions by examining the development of the Theory of Constraints (TOC) and Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) and the debate that has accompanied these, as a case study. The debate relates to how much of the knowledge proposition in these is really new and whether the method of developing the proposition was lacking in some sense. Knowledge intermediaries, those who are expected to play an important role in disseminating knowledge, will be better prepared to deal with similar innovations in a balanced manner, by analyzing the case of TOC/CCPM.

Open access

Sindija Balode and Uldis Kamols

Abstract

The research focuses on the rental housing market in Riga and reveals that among factors that affect the rent level in neighbourhoods of Riga the most are distance from the city centre, neighbourhood safety, quality of housing and transport infrastructure, access to shopping malls, and employment opportunities. The aim of the research is to analyse the housing market in Riga, by putting a special focus on price determinants and lesson keys of Helsinki. Quantitative and qualitative research methods are used in the paper with the biggest contribution being extraction and analysis of data about more than 1800 rental apartments in Riga from the largest Latvian online real estate advertisement platform. Quantitative analysis is based on investigating relationships between average rent levels in different neighbourhoods of Riga and index values of 23 urban environment factors. In addition, the rental housing market in Helsinki is researched, emphasising few guidelines for rental housing market improvements in Riga, such as introducing government subsidies.

Open access

Graig Arcuri and Chaoliang Jing

Abstract

This paper provides a description of the community governance paradigm shifts in China over the past 4 decades. By taking a historical review of Chinese tradition in community governance, a brief history of the transformation of property rights in the former Soviet Bloc, plus a theoretical analysis from the perspective of social physics, this study clarifies the inherent logic for the community governance evolution across China. The influence that ancient dynasties, up to 1949, exerted upon the modern community governance has been large, which has formed certain social governance inertia. However, there have emerged many new forms of power among which the homeowners are the strongest group to demand more autonomy. By using a social physics framework, this article sheds light on the ongoing tension between the traditional inertia and the emerging trend of autonomy in real estate. Furthermore, the logic could be employed for predicting the future community governance style in China.

Open access

Lyudmyla Malyarets, Oleksandr Dorokhov, Vitaliya Koybichuk and Liudmyla Dorokhova

Abstract

The article is devoted to developing a definition of the indicator of the bank’s competitiveness which based on the theory of fuzzy sets and neural networks techniques. Uncertainties that have a place when considering and analyzing the components of evaluating the success and effectiveness of the bank have been considered and analyzed. The sequence of construction and structure for generalizing parameter of bank competitiveness are presented and grounded. Stages of obtaining an integrated assessment of bank competitiveness by sequential application of fuzzy logic and neural networks approaches are determined and described. Corresponding fuzzy terms, membership functions and fuzzy inference rules are described. Overall sequence and steps to resolve the problem are processed. The practical implementation of the summary fuzzy inference of the bank’s competitiveness is given. In particular, numerical calculations on the proposed model for Ukrainian commercial bank “Khreshchatyk” was carried out. Comparison of obtained evaluation results for the competitiveness of specified bank with available data and other scientific information sources showed their compliance with factual situation. In this way, the expediency of application fuzzy modeling has been confirmed to determine the generalized indicators of bank competitiveness. Adequacy and accuracy of the proposed model and the results of calculations were proved. The proposed approach is quite general. This or similar model can be successfully used in other tasks of building and generalized evaluation of integrated indicators for the presence of several local, individual parameters for different economic processes and tasks.

Open access

Taufeeq Ajaz

Abstract

This paper uses time-series data from India and tests for asymmetries in policy preferences of the Reserve Bank of India (the Central Bank of India, hereafter RBI). The results show evidence in favour of preference asymmetries in monetary policy reaction function in India and hence nonlinearities in the Taylor-rule. Evidence of both recession avoidance preference (RAP) as well as inflation avoidance preference (IAP) is established. And it is found that RAP is dominant over IAP, thus confirming nonlinearities in reaction function which in the present case turns out to be concave in inflation and output gap. Further, the results indicate preference asymmetries in both the objectives. The coefficient weights to positive and negative inflation and output gap differ over long time horizons thus confirming asymmetric policy preferences. Specifically the RBI seems to be more averse to a negative output gap (contraction) as compared to an equal positive gap. In addition, the RBI appears to be more averse to a positive inflation gap as compared to an equal negative gap.

Open access

M. Fouad Jasmine, E. Fayed Mona and A. Emam Heba Talla

Abstract

The present paper attempts to expand the existing literature on Central Bank Independence (CBI) by proposing new measures for CBI. It designs two indices: one tackling the de jure CBI and the other assessing the de facto level of CBI. The two measures outweigh traditional measures in various aspects; first, the two indices are more comprehensive in terms of possible institutional arrangements. The de jure index incorporates several aspects related to CBI that were not previously grouped together in a unified index i.e. financial independence, limitations related to indirect credit to government, accountability and transparency. The de facto index comprises the main existing indicators for measuring actual CBI (i.e. turnover ratio, political vulnerability indicator and monetary policy reaction function) in addition to new variables, as the lender of last resort function, independence of central bank board, and financial independence that were not included in almost all previous studies. Second, the two indices allow a higher level of precision as they comprise aspects that can be objectively codified with a minimum level of subjectivity. Third, the two indices cover the same attributes of CBI to facilitate measuring the deviation between de jure and de facto level of independence for any central bank. The current paper provides a comprehensive definition and analysis of both indices to enable their replication in future studies.

Open access

Wichian Deechai, Thanongsak Sovajassatakul and Sirirat Petsangsri

Abstract

The objective of this research was to evaluate the need for blended learning development to enhance the critical thinking of students. Selected by using multistage random sampling, the 450 samples comprised of 376 vocational students and 69 teachers at vocational level. The research instrument used was a needs evaluation form, which was necessary to improve blended learning to enhance critical thinking. The index of consistency (IOC) was between 0.56-1.00, and the total reliability was 0.94. The research was conducted and data collected from July 2018 to August 2018. 445 completed evaluation forms, 98.88% of the total sent out, were returned to researchers. Frequency, percentage, PNI(Modified), and content analysis were used to analyze the data. The research results showed that the vocational students and teachers agreed on the same point that there should be development of student critical thinking skills. This development should comprise of critical thinking skills, learning achievement, and learning management. The recommendations made for improvement were to increase discipline within educational institutes, and to change and add facilities to support modern learning styles. Testing styles should be modern and correspond to student contexts. Moreover, learning styles should be improved to be up-to-date and to correspond to students’ needs and their real lives.

Open access

Aleksandra Praščević and Milutin Ješić

Abstract

The paper examines how the implicit coordination mechanisms between the policymakers could help in overcoming negative macroeconomic consequences which are provoked by the problem of zero lower bound (ZLB) on the nominal interest rates. For the long period of time, before the global recession started, the ZLB problem was not found to be interesting for researchers. Immediately after the crisis outbreak, more attention was put on that problem within different approaches since conventional monetary policy faced substantial limitation in overcoming business cycles. Many authors have proposed new unconventional measures in both monetary policy and fiscal policy sphere. The theoretical approaches to the ZLB problem include many different aspects. In the paper we chose to use regime switching models adjusted to simulate occasionally binding constraints in order to investigate different scenarios within the New Keynesian framework. We found that coordination between more passive monetary policymaker and more active fiscal policymaker is crucial in the ZLB environment. Central bank has to follow monetary policy rule in which both inflation stabilization and output stabilization have certain positive weight. However, credible policy-making which is supported by the relevant institutions is a necessary precondition for implicit coordination, which substantially decrease the losses occurred as a consequence of ZLB on interest rates.