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Open access

Matúš Marcinčin

Abstract

Ján Vilikovský’s synthesizing monograph Shakespeare u nás (2014) is a great study; however, it does not include the whole history of translations of Shakespeare’s dramas into the Slovak language. Slovak literary and theatre studies have not reflected this theme in relation to Slovak cultural exile after the year 1945. In the present contribution, the author completes the mentioned monograph by Vilikovský, he adds and deals especially with translations written in exile by Andrej Žarnov and Karol Strmeň. He pays special attention to the fragments of translations of Shakespeare’s dramas found as a manuscript in the inheritance left after the tragic death of their author Karol Strmeň. The author reconstructs the fragments and then analyses and compares them with relevant Slovak and Czech translations of Shakespeare’s works. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that the translations by Strmeň written in a modern, cultivated, although slightly archaic Slovak language would have achieved an important position in the history of Slovak translations of Shakespeare’s drama if they had been published.

Open access

Marek Urban and Kamila Urban

Abstract

The present study analyses the social representation of women and men in ten contemporary Slovak musical films aimed at children (Spievankovo, Fíha-tralala, Smejko a Tanculienka). An analysis of the internal and external features attributed to “men”, “women”, “boys”, and “girls” has revealed, in line with previous research, that men are associated with strength and courage and women with beauty and care. Gender also determines clothing, props, and mise-en-scene. Contrary to previous findings, women in the analysed films, more often than men, display activity and dominance and take the role of moral and intellectual authorities. Men, on the other hand, are just as emotional as women. In conclusion, the author proposes a hypothesis to explain these discrepancies with the previous research.

Open access

Dagmar Inštitorisová

Abstract

Employing a comparative method, the present study explores the Renaissance expression of Jozef Ciller’s Shakespearean scenographies. Based on an analysis of preserved archival material (scenographic proposals, photographs from productions, video recordings, reviews, etc.) and personal communication with Jozef Ciller, the author examines how he transposed general features of European Renaissance (visual arts, architecture) into individual scenographic solutions. The author’s analysis also aims to identify how Ciller worked with the architecture and scenography of Elizabethan theatre Renaissance and observe his work with Renaissance elements depending on whether a scenography was meant for indoors or outdoors. The author concludes that Jozef Ciller employs Renaissance elements as motifs to preserve the awareness of man’s Renaissance spirit and greatness.

Open access

Martin Palúch

Abstract

The present study offers a critical reflection of contemporary Slovak authorial production. Focusing on three films, the author analyses the authors′ approaches to representing reality from a formal point of view. The author claims that all of them relativize the status of documentary film, using as a tool of critical analysis Carl Plantiga’s definition of documentary film, included in his concept of “asserted veridical representation”. The films under analysis use three formally different approaches of relating to social reality. One relies on an acted form, the second takes the form of a historicizing essay, and the third promotes the author’s subjective views through a cut collage of motifs stemming from reality.

Open access

Radmila Hrdinová

Abstract

The present study aims to describe the work that Ján Zavarský, one of the most prominent contemporary Slovak scenographers, has done for musical theatre, mainly opera. The author draws on her years of experience as an audience member, production recordings, photographs, scene designs, and other documentation. Her study is the first attempt at mapping the language of expression that Zavarský has created in two decades, especially in cooperation with the directors Martin Otava and Karla Štaubertová. First, the author deals with the process of creation of a scenographic proposal in dialogue with a director, which gives rise to a scenographic and directorial concept of a production. It then proceeds to identifying the characteristic features of Zavarský’s approach to opera scenography, which include the architectural concept of the scene, simplicity of expression, formal and colour stylization, and the connection between scenography and the movement of characters on the stage. The study includes a list of Zavarský’s scenographies and photographs documenting the individual features of his work for musical theatre in approximately ten productions.

Open access

Dagmar Podmaková

Abstract

The authoress was intrigued by the book of a young theatre historian Karol Mišovic who, through the fates of the characters rendered on the stage of the Slovak National Theatre by its former first ladies guides the reader through the first stage of the modern history of Slovak theatre. He paints a panoramic picture of their professional theatre careers, based on the archive materials from the 1940s onwards. A vivid narration reveals the characters rendered by Mária Prechovská, Eva Kristinová, Viera Strnisková, Zdena Gruberová and Eva Poláková, the work of directors against the backdrop of a changing society and it poses a number of open questions regarding the role of the theatre during the breakthrough periods of Slovak society.

Open access

J.P. Neto and J.N. Silva

Abstract

For games of complete information with no chance component, like Chess, Go, Hex, and Konane, some parameters have been identified that help us understand what makes a game pleasant to play. One of these goes by the name of drama.

Briefly, drama is linked to the possibility of recovering from a seemingly weaker position, if the player is strong enough. This is an important requirement to prevent initial advantages to be amplified into unavoidable and thus uninteresting victories. Drama is a feature that arguably good board games should have, since it is relevant in the perception of the play experience as pleasant.

Despite its intrinsic qualitative nature, we suggest the adaptation of the concept of drama to games of pure chance and propose a set of objective criteria to measure it. Some parameters are here used to compare Goose-like games, which we compute via computer simulation for some well-know games. A statistical analysis is performed based on the play of millions of matches done by computer simulation. The article discusses correlations and patterns found among the collected data. The methodology presented herein is general and can be used to compare other types of board games.

Open access

Adrian Seville

Abstract

Simple race games, played with dice and without choice of move, are known from antiquity. In the late 16th century, specific examples of this class of game emerged from Italy and spread rapidly into other countries of Europe. Pre-eminent was the Game of the Goose, which spawned thousands of variants over the succeeding centuries to the present day, including educational, polemical and promotional variants.1

The educational variants began as a French invention of the 17th century, the earliest of known date being a game to teach Geography, the Jeu du Monde by Pierre Duval, published in 1645. By the end of the century, games designed to teach several of the other accomplishments required of the noble cadet class had been developed: History, the Arts of War, and Heraldry being notable among them.

A remarkable example of a game within this class is the astronomical game, Le Jeu de la Sphere ou de l’Univers selon Tycho Brahe, published in 1661 by E(s)tienne Vouillemont in Paris. The present paper analyses this game in detail, showing how it combines four kinds of knowledge systems: natural philosophy, based on the Ptolemaic sphere; biblical knowledge; astrology, with planetary and zodiacal influences; and classical knowledge embodied in the names of the constellations. The game not only presents all four on an equal footing but also explores links between them, indicating some acceptance of an overall knowledge-system. Despite the title, there is no evidence of the Tychonian scheme for planetary motion, nor of any Copernican or Galilean influence.

This game is to be contrasted with medieval race games, based on numerology and symbolism, and with race games towards the end of the Early Modern period in which science is fully accepted.

Open access

Harald Wiese

Abstract

Kauṭilya’s maṇḍala model has intrigued indologists and political scientists for some time. It deals with friendship and enmity between countries that are direct or indirect neighbours. (Ghosh; 1936) suggests a close relationship between this model and Indian four-king chess. We try to corroborate his claim by presenting a stylized game-theory model of both Indian four-king chess and Kauṭilya’s maṇḍala theory. Within that game model, we can deal with Kauṭilya’s conjecture according to which an enemy’s enemy is likely to be one’s friend. Arguably, this conjecture is reflected in the ally structure of four-king chess. We also comment on the widespread disapproval of dice in (four-king) chess.