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Determinants of the Adoption of Quality Protein Maize among Farming Households in Niger State, Nigeria

Abstract

The study was conducted to examine the determinants of quality protein maize (QPM) adoption among farming households in Niger State, Nigeria. A twostage random sampling procedure was employed to obtain data from selected 120 maize farming households. Descriptive statistics, logistic and tobit regression models were used for the analysis. Results of the analysis show that the awareness and adoption level of QPM production in the study area were 95% and 87% respectively. Among the determinants of QPM adoption status, the coefficient of age (-0.12734) and primary occupation (-1.38295) of the respondents were negative and significant at 5% level of probability while the tenancy attribute’s coefficient (2.62533) was positively significant at 10%. The level of adoption of QPM was positively and significantly influenced by household size (0.00729) and years of schooling (0.01148) at 10% and 5% level of significant respectively. The study recommends intensification of information dissemination on the adoption of QPM in the study area.

Open access
Diamagnetic cobalt(III)tris(o-ethylxanthate) and nickel(II)bis(o-ethylxanthate)

Abstract

Diamagnetic [Co(xanth)3] and [Ni(xanth)2] complexes have been prepared by reaction of Co(II) and Ni(II) salts with potassium O-ethyl xanthate (Kxanth). The isolated Co(III) and Ni(II) complexes have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray crystallography, UV-VIS and IR spectroscopy, computational methods, and magnetic measurements.

Open access
Distinguishing between juniper-flavoured spirit drinks from different producers

Abstract

A simple method for classifying juniper-flavoured spirit drinks is proposed based on the ratio of fluorescence intensity values in synchronous fluorescence spectra. Receiver operating curves (ROC) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) were used to compute the performance of the classification. Significant differences in the fluorescence intensity ratios (I316/I287 and I324/I287) observed in the spectra recorded using wavelength difference 10 nm were evaluated by ROC analysis to identify cutoff values that gave ideal AUCs equal to one, thus allowing for 100% correct classification of the samples according to producer criteria. LDA showed that drinks of different producers could be distinguished (100% correct classification) on the basis of their differences in the fluorescence intensity ratios (I323/I287, I324/I287, I316/I287 and I325/I287). These results show that complete synchronous spectra are not required to discriminate between producers. Instead of them, fluorescence intensity could be measured at selected wavelengths.

Open access
Effects of Modifying Agents on the Dyeability of Cotton Fabric using Malachite Green Dye

Abstract

Changes in thermodynamic parameters as a result of modifying agents on dye uptake of cotton fabric using malachite green (MG) dye was investigated in this study. Five modifying agents {Acetic acid (CH3COOH), hydrated Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3.10H2O), Sodium Chloride (NaCl), Ammonium sulphate ((NH4)2SO4) and Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)} were used on cotton fabric. The equilibrium exhaustions (%E) were determined before and after modification of the cotton fabric at different concentrations which were 88.24%, 80%, 77.14%, 65.10% and 30.88% for CH3COOH, NaCl, (NH4)2SO4, Na2CO3.10H2O and H2O2 respectively. The results also showed a correlation between the standard affinity(-Δμθ) of dye on cotton fabric and the equilibrium exhaustion. The values of entropy (ΔSθ) and enthalpy (ΔHθ) change revealed the feasibility (spontaneity) and exothermic nature of the reaction. The optimum parameters were attained in acidic solution (CH3COOH) at the highest temperature (70 °C) of dyeing as it showed the highest % efficiency of 88.24%. This work established that modification of cotton fabric with modifying agents is one of the best route to improve the affinity between dye and fabric as it reduces stress, amount of dyes wasted in dyeing, time required to achieve satisfactory results leading to a cost effective environmental friendly approach in the field of cotton dyeing.

Open access
Epidemiological Surveillance of Influenza Virus Matrix Gene in Pigs, in Lagos, Nigeria, 2015-2016

Abstract

The co-infection of different influenza A virus enable viral gene re-assortments especially in pigs that serve as mixing vessel with the possibility of emergence of novel subtypes. Such re-assortants pose serious public health threat, as epitomised by the emergence of pandemic influenza in 2009. In Nigeria, there is mixture of animal species and highly populated densities that can increase the risk of influenza virus endemicity, genetic reshuffling and emergence of future pandemic influenza viruses. Thus, this study was aimed at determining influenza virus disease burden in pigs. This study was a cross sectional molecular surveillance of influenza virus. A total of 194 pig nasal samples from reported cases and randomly sampled were collected from pig farms in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos State between October, 2015 and April, 2016. The samples were investigated for the presence of influenza virus matrix gene by Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction and detected by gel electrophoresis. P-values were calculated using Chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. The result showed that 25 (12.9%) samples were positive for influenza A virus, out of which, 20 (80%) were samples from Ojo while 5 (20%) were samples from Ikorodu. Epidemiological parameters for the sampled locations, methods either as reported case or randomised, and sex compared were significant at 95% confidence interval. This study determined influenza viral burden in pigs with a molecular prevalence of 12.9% to influenza A. It further confirmed the sub-clinical and clinical circulation of Influenza A virus in pigs in Ojo and Ikorodu in Lagos. Therefore, the detection of influenza A virus in commercial pigs in Nigeria accentuates the importance of continuous surveillance and monitoring of the virus in order to prevent the advent of virulent strains that may spread to Pig-handlers and the community at large.

Open access
Investigation of genotoxicity in river sediments

Abstract

The purpose of the present study was to develop a useful screening method to assess genotoxic effect of polluted bottom sediments from the water reservoir Ružin No.I. The Hornád and Hnilec Rivers drained a former mining area, have been polluted in the long-term by heavy metals (Cu, As, Sb, Hg), which significantly contributed to environmental degradation. Genotoxicity of bottom sediment was evaluated by test SOS-ChromoPadTM 3.0 for solid samples without extraction. The mentioned test represents simple, quick and direct sediment phase toxicity testing procedure. In this test bacterial strain Escherichia coli K12 PQ37 was used. The results of SOS-ChromoPadTM 3.0 showed that sample Hornád has low potential genotoxic effect on the environment. It was determined on the basis of slight blue colouration of chromogenic paper at the point of sediment application. The sample Hnilec was negative. This test allows significantly reduce the time for obtaining information about sediments genotoxicity and accept necessary security proceeding in time.

Open access
The Kinetics of the Oxidation of Lysine by μ-Peroxo-Bridged Binuclear Cobalt (III) Complex of Succinimide in Aqueous Hydrochloric Acid Medium

Abstract

Kinetics of oxidation of Lysine (Lys) and mechanisms by μ-peroxo bis[bis(ethylenediamine)succinimidato-dicobalt(III)]dinitratedihydrate; [LCo(μ-O2)CoL](NO3)2.2H2O (L = suc(en)2), hereafter the complex, was investigated at 420 nm wavelength of maximum absorption of the complex under the conditions hydrogen ions concentration = 1.8 × 10−2 mol dm−3, temperature = 24 ± 1 °C, [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] = 1.4 × 10−4 mol dm−3 and ionic strength = 0.5 mol dm−3. First order in [LCo(μ-O2)CoL2+] and [Lys] were obtained but inverse first order in [H+]. The proposed overall rate equation is as shown:

Rate=(k1k2+K1k3k41[H+])[LCo(μO2)CoL2+][Lys]

Rate of the reaction decreases when hydrogen ions concentration increase and exhibited converse effect with increase in concentration of ionic strength from 0.1 – 1.3 mol dm−3. Added cations and anions affected the reaction rate and the Michaelis-Menten plot passed through the origin indicating no absence of intermediate complex in the electron transfer processes. Putting all the results obtained together, the most probable reaction mechanism is in favour of outer-sphere and an appropriate rate law is established using steady state approximation.

Open access
Metalotolerance Capacity of Autochthonous Bacteria Isolated From Industrial Waste Effluent

Abstract

Microbes play significant roles in remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent using the mechanisms of biosorption and bioaccumulation. In the present study, six heavy metal resistant autochthonous bacteria species namely Bacillus cereus, B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Flavobacterium aquatile, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida were isolated from effluent samples collected from Paper-mill industry (PMI), Paints and Chemicals Industry (PCI), and Steel-rolling Industry (SRI). The isolates were studied for their heavy metal tolerant capacities at different aqueous salt concentrations. Elemental analysis of the industrial effluent samples collected indicated the presence of heavy metals such as Copper (Cu2+), Manganese (Mn2+), Iron (Fe2+) and Lead (Pb2+) at varying concentrations in μg/ml. Generally, there were variations in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of the heavy metal salt to each of the bacteria understudy. The MIC value of each of the bacterial isolates to aqueous solution of Cu2SO4 showed that B. megaterium, B. subtilis, Pseudomonas flourescens and Pseudomonas putida had the same MIC value of 20 ± 1.5 μg/mL while Bacillus cereus and Flavobacterium aquatile had MIC values of 13 ± 1.3 μg/mL and 25 ± 2.1 μg/mL respectively. This variation was also noticeable in aqueous salts of Mn2SO4, Fe2SO4 and Pb2SO4.The bacteria isolates showed sensitivity to heavy metals with increasing zone of inhibition as concentration increased with each isolate showing varying degree of metalotolerance. The effectiveness of the autochthonous bacteria as a means to bio-augment the remediation of heavy metal polluted industrial effluent was further proven and recommended.

Open access
Microextraction based on solidified floating organic drop coupled with ETAAS for the determination of lead in herbs

Abstract

A rapid, inexpensive and practical solidified of floating organic droplet microextraction (SFODME) prior to electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) was proposed for lead (Pb) determination in herb samples. For SFODME procedure, 1-(2-pysidylazo)-2-naphthol was used as a complexing agent. Analytical parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, i.e. types and volume of extracting solvent, concentration of 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol, pH, extraction temperature and time were optimized. Under the optimized conditions, LOD and LOQ were 0.064 and 0.214 μg L−1, respectively, and an enrichment factor was achieved at 18.71 with the relative standard deviation ranging from 1.3 to 2.5% (n=6). The proposed method was effectively applied to the determination of lead in Spinach leaves (SRM-1570a) and Thai herb samples with acceptable results.

Open access
NMR spectroscopic properties of furo[2′,3′:4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,2,4]triazine derivatives

Abstract

The 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic properties of a series of furo[2′,3′:4,5]pyrrolo[1,2-d][1,2,4]triazin-8(7H)-ones and -thiones were investigated. The influence of various electron donating as well as electron withdrawing substituents at C-5 or N-7 on 1H NMR chemical shifts as well as 13C chemical shifts at C8 were observed. The 5-chloromethyl group had a little influence on the chemical shift of H-7 proton and the 8-thione group causes deshielding of H-7 as well as H-5 protons in comparison with the C-8 carbonyl group.

Open access