The purpose of this study was to develop a scale to measure extreme sports participants’ levels of compulsive exercising. There are a number of compulsive exercising scales; however, none of them is targeted for extreme sports participants, whose emotional responses differ from those of non-extreme sports participants. Five hundred extreme sports participants were involved in this study, which included literature analysis, expert review, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Firstly, 95 items were selected from previous studies related to extreme sports and compulsive exercising. Secondly, nine experts scrutinized the content validity of the 95 items, and 82 items were found to be valid. Thirdly, the 82-item survey was initially administered to 253 participants for the purposes of exploratory factor analysis. Lastly, the 20-item survey that came out as a result of the 82 items being put through the exploratory factor analysis was distributed to the other 247 participants in the confirmatory factor analysis. In the final results, 16 items regarding the four factors of the “withdrawal symptom”, “attachment”, “struggle”, and “obsession” were confirmed. The factors used to measure extreme sports participants’ compulsiveness in this study reflect somewhat different dimensions from those developed in previous studies for non-extreme sports participants or exercisers. Only factors in the affective and behavioral dimensions are included in the present study’s scale, while factors in the cognitive or the combined cognitive, affective, and behavioral dimensions were investigated in previous studies. This explains the need for the present study.
To evaluate the kinetics of inflammatory biomarkers in septic patients in order to identify the most reliable predictor of unfavorable outcome.
A prospective analysis of septic patients was performed. Median levels of neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio, fibrinogen, C-reactive protein and procalcitonin were dynamically assessed and comparatively analyzed.
Seventy-seven patients were included. Descendent kinetic patterns were registered for all biomarkers, except C-reactive protein. At 24 hours, neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio significantly decreased in 42.85% of cases, procalcitonin in 37.33%, C-reactive protein in 16.12% and fibrinogen in 1.58% of cases. At 72 hours, procalcitonin decreased to one-half in 70% of cases and neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio in 67.53% of cases.
Neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin significantly decreased in the first 72 hours, while C-reactive protein increased in the first 24 hours. The proportions of patients with major decrease of baseline values were higher for neutrophil/lymphocyte count ratio and procalcitonin.
Soccer referees are a specific group of the athletes’ population whose careers peak from 30 to 45 years old. An athlete's performance is not only determined by physical training but also by a lifestyle, e.g. eating habits. The purpose of this study was to verify current eating habits and resulting body composition of a group of elite international soccer referees. At an international FIFA seminar 60 elite international soccer referees (aged 39.2 ± 4.2 years) were enrolled. A body composition assessment was performed with skinfold thickness and bio impedance analysis, while eating habits were evaluated with a multi-pass 24-hour dietary recall. The body composition showed a normal weight condition with a fat content of 11.4 ± 2.5%. Macronutrients showed a low level of carbohydrates (43.6 ± 5.4%) and a high level of fat (40.0 ± 4.5%). Micronutrients showed a low level of calcium, potassium, zinc, magnesium, iodine, vitamin B12 and vitamin B9. Even though their body composition was within the normal range, the current eating habits of elite international soccer referees did not appear to follow the nutrition guidelines. Therefore, it would be advisable to provide knowledge on nutrition for this particular category of sports subjects, an individualized nutritional plan would be advisable, in order to achieve and maintain better performance and appropriate body composition for their role.
The aim of this study was to verify the effect of an inside floater on soccer players’ tactical behaviour in small-sided and conditioned games (SSCGs). The sample comprised 54 Brazilian top-level academy players. The instrument used to assess players’ tactical behaviour was the System of Tactical Assessment in Soccer (FUT-SAT). Tactical behaviour was analysed through the number of tactical actions and the percentage of correct actions regarding the core tactical principles of soccer. Repeated measures test was used to compare tactical behaviour between games (SSCGs) with and without an inside floater. Pearson’s r was used to verify the effect size of the inside floater on tactical behaviour. As for tactical actions, SSCGs with an inside floater displayed significantly lower means for the tactical principles of penetration (2.76 ± 1.63; p < .001), delay (6.11 ± 2.68; p < .018), defensive coverage (1.64 ± 1.14; p < .001) and significantly higher means for the tactical principle of defensive unity (14.98 ± 4.57; p < .032). With respect to the percentage of correct actions, SSCGs with an inside floater displayed significantly lower means for all tactical principles, except for offensive coverage (90.5 ± 18.48; p < 1.000). It was concluded that the inside floater allowed players to modify their behaviour in such a way that they adapted to the constraints imposed by the presence of an inside floater. Furthermore, the inside floater provided more difficulty for players, and thus may be considered an important task constraint to be added in SSCGs.
This study aimed to analyse the effect of neurofeedback (NFB) training based on beta-wave amplification and theta-wave inhibition on the visual processing efficiency of judo athletes. The study examined 12 male athletes from the national team of the Polish Judo Association. Participants were divided into the experimental (EG, n = 6) and the control group (CG, n = 6). The NFB training protocol was performed and recorded using a Deymed Truscan system with 24 active channels. The effect of NFB training was examined by computer-based simple and complex reaction tests and selected tests of the Vienna Test System (VST). One – way ANOVA showed statistically significant differences between the CG and the EG in theta and beta values after the first and the second cycle of training. There were statistically significant differences between the CG and the EG in the results of reaction speed tests after individual cycles of training. The highest reduction in simple reaction time was obtained after the second training cycle, when training was performed every second day and lasted four minutes.
Competitive swimmers usually undergo large mileage of daily training, in which propulsive force is produced mainly by the upper limbs. Some studies claim that dry-land shoulder rotators injury prevention programs before the in-water swim practice are paramount. However, the effect of shoulder strengthening prior to water training is unclear. This study aimed to analyse the acute effects of training programs conducted on dry land with the goal of preventing shoulder rotators injuries. A group of young swimmers (N = 23) was recruited to participate in this research. The peak torques of shoulder internal and external rotators were assessed before and after the completion of the compensatory strength training program. The isokinetic assessment was performed using two different protocols: 3 repetitions at 60⍛/s and 20 repetitions at 180⍛/s. Except for a trivial reduction in strength after the training program, there were no other significant differences in any of the studied variables (shoulders rotators endurance, strength and muscle balance). All results showed trivial to small effect sizes. Our findings suggest that a compensatory strength training program does not have a significant acute effect on the strength, endurance and muscle balance of shoulder rotators in young swimmers.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 12 weeks of circuit training on physical fitness in handball players. Subjects were randomly divided into a circuit strength training group (CT, n = 10) and a control group (CG, n = 9). Training sessions and matches were performed together, but during the 12-week intervention, the experimental group replaced part of the regular regimen with circuit strength training. Measures assessed in both groups before and after the intervention included: the agility T-half Test, the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test, squat and counter-movement jumps, 15 m and 30 m sprints, and strength tests for the bench press, pull over, and the half squat. The upper limb bench press and pull-over tests along with the lower limb back half squat were performed using a 1-repetition maximum protocol. Based on the intraclass correlation coefficient and excluding the agility T-test (ICC = 0.72), we found excellent relative reliability for all variables (intraclass correlation coefficient range: 0.85-0.96, SEM range: 0.03-3.00). For absolute reliability or coefficients of variation, 71% (5/7) of the variables were excellent (CV < 5%). The circuit strength training group showed significant interaction effects and relevant effect sizes for the 12-week training period (8/9, 89%), and the mean effect size for the CT was markedly higher (d = 1.3, range: 0.41 - 2.76) than in the CG (d = - 1.0, range: -0.73 - 0.29). The largest improvements were in the Yo-Yo test (d = 2.76) and the squat jump (d = 2.05). These results show that a 12-week circuit strength training program is an effective method to increase handball-related performance characteristics.
Compression garments have been used to minimise injury risk, through improvements in stability and joint positioning; yet, it is unclear whether there is an optimal length or tightness of these garments that may maximise observed benefits. This study measured the effect of three different garment types, at two different tightness levels, on lower extremity stability and alignment during a forward lunge movement. Sixteen healthy adults (7 female, 9 male; 24.3 ± 2.9 years) were recruited as participants. Stability of the lead foot, as well as lower body joint kinematics, were recorded using an Oqus 12-camera system, surrounding participants as they executed three forward lunges onto a Matscan pressure mat under seven compression conditions (Control, Light/Heavy Calf, Light/Heavy Socks, Light/Heavy Leggings). Mean minimum time-to-boundary (mmTtB) (derived from centre of pressure measures) and frontal plane kinematics (lateral pelvic tilt, knee valgus, ankle inversion/eversion) were used to assess the effect of garment tightness and length on lunge stability and joint alignment, respectively. A significant effect of tightness on mmTtB was observed (F(1,105) = 8.192; p = .005, η2 = .072), with Heavy garments eliciting longer mmTtB compared to their corresponding Light (-.18 ± .06 s; p = .015) or Control (-.28 ± .09 s; p = .007) conditions. No significant effects of garment tightness or length on lower body kinematics were evident. The results of this study suggest stability during a forward lunge is improved through the use of tight-fitted compression garments.
There are rare reports of the occurrence of acute transverse myelitis and Guillain–Barré syndrome after various surgical procedures and general/epidural anaesthesia. The concomitant occurrence of these pathologies is very rare and is called Guillain–Barré and acute transverse myelitis overlap syndrome. In this article, we present the case of a second trimester pregnant patient who developed Guillain–Barré and acute transverse myelitis overlap syndrome.
We report the case of a 16-year-old female patient who underwent a therapeutic termination of pregnancy two weeks prior to the onset of the disease with gradual development of a motor deficit with walking and sensitivity disorders, fecal incontinence. The diagnosis was based on clinical exam, electroneurography and spinal magnetic resonance imaging. Endocrinopathies, infectious diseases, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, neoplastic diseases and vitamin deficiencies were ruled out. Our patient attended five sessions of therapeutic plasma exchange, followed by steroid treatment, intravenous immunoglobulin with minimum recovery of the motor deficit in the upper limbs, but without significant evolution of the motor deficit in the lower limbs. The patient was discharged on maintenance corticotherapy and immunosuppressive treatment with azathioprine.
We report a very rare association between Guillain–Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis triggered by a surgical intervention with general anaesthesia. The overlap of Guillain–Barré syndrome and acute transverse myelitis makes the prognosis for recovery worse, and further studies are needed to establish the first-line therapy in these cases.
The aim of this study was to assess the effects of incremental and continuous exercise on the concentration of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), growth hormone (GH), testosterone (T), and cortisol (C), as well as to investigate whether increased cardiac dimensions in cyclists were related to changes in these hormones and cardiac biomarkers. The study included 30 elite cyclists divided into two groups, i.e., athletes with left ventricle hypertrophy (a LVH group), and a control group (CG) without LVH. The study protocol included performance of a standard incremental exercise (IncEx) test to measure athletes’ maximum power (Pmax), maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), and lactate threshold (LAT). The IncEx test results were then used to determine the intensity of the continuous exercise (ConEx) test which was performed after the 1-week washout period. Cyclists with LVH and without LVH did not differ in resting hormone concentrations and cardiac biomarkers levels. There was a significant effect of exercise on serum IGF-1 levels (p < 0.05) in the LVH group and a combined effect of the type of exercise and LVH on IGF-1 (p < 0.05). Cyclists with LVH demonstrated higher post exercise T levels recorded in response to exercise compared to the CG (p < 0.01). Significantly higher serum T levels were observed in response to ConEx compared to IncEx in the LVH group and the CG (p < 0.05 and p < 0.05, respectively). In the LVH group, a significant positive correlation between the post-exercise T/C ratio and left ventricular mass index was observed (r = 0.98, p < 0.01). There were no effects of heart hypertrophy on cardiac standard biomarkers. Incremental and continuous exercise caused a marked increase in steroid hormone concentrations and moderate strengthening of insulin growth factors effects. Regular incremental exercise seems to induce beneficial cardiac adaptations via significant increases in the concentration of anabolic factors compared to the same training mode yet with constant exercise intensity.