In the paper land reform in South African political discourse will be investigated, especially the process of its politicization. How the topic of land reform is used by political forces, especially the ruling party; the African National Congress and current President Jacob Zuma. Does the Republic of South Africa take a populist turn on land reform or is it some kind of social justice after the suppression of the apartheid era and decades before? The political disputes and decisions will be analysed in confrontations with the fundamentals and values of a democratic state as a guarantee of property rights, private ownership and free market principles (dilemma of the problem of willing buyer - willing seller). It will be necessary to present the historical background of land problem in the RSA. The problem will be investigated in connection with the socio-economic situation of the RSA. The study will also tackle the problem of social and economic inequality from the perspective of politics. In the paper, a mix of primary and secondary research methods of data collection and analysing will be used. Theoretical framework will be based on assumptions of political discourse and the paradigm of “classic” land reform.
The bloody conflict which was taking place in South Africa in the years 1899-1902 was followed with a great interest by Polish public opinion. Its greatest part strongly sympathized with the Boer republics. Their burgers were idealized and presented by the Polish press as brave fighters for independence, who dared to stand up against the world empire to defend their rights while Great Britain was attributed full responsibility for the outbreak of the war. For many Poles the Boers personified the general idea of freedom fighters and symbolized all suppressed nations. Their sad fate seemed to be quite similar to the Polish one and this similarity was the main source of sympathy toward defenders of the Transvaal and Free Orange State. Voices of few Polish intellectuals, who called for a more objective and not so emotional view on the war, could not change the pro-Boers stance of the greatest part of Polish public opinion.
The article analyzes Tove Jansson’s Moomin novels in terms of the representations of pipe smoking. The analysis focuses on three characters from the novels: Moominpappa, Snufkin, and the Joxter. The theoretic framework of the analysis is called “the semiotics of tobacco”. In this context, tobacco is regarded as a sign of the cultural sign-system, and thus what is exactly analyzed are the cultural meanings of tobacco in the Moomin novels.
This paper is a contribution to the discussion on audiovisual translation (AVT) in cinema and broadcast media on the example of Poland and Norway seen from the perspective of viewers. It aims at establishing possible differences and similarities in the way dominant AVT modes are viewed by younger people in these two countries. In AVT studies Norway has always been classified as a subtitling country while Poland has traditionally been associated with cinema subtitling and television voice-over, of which the latter often baffles AVT scholars. Consequently, one may presume that the audiences in these two countries are likely to have fairly disparate expectations towards AVT modes used in their cinemas and broadcast media. For the purpose of this article a questionnaire has been prepared and the findings arising from the analysis of the submitted replies will be presented here.
The paper deals with the relations between Danish pronunciation and the so-called ‘normative orthography’, i.e. the official Danish writing rules as laid down by the authorities in orthographic directives since 1889. The specific aim of the paper is to suggest a model for defining and describing the different kinds of normative orthography and their mutual relations. The criteria used for placing the orthographic rules in the model are (a) whether the rule is dependent on pronunciation or not, and (b) whether the resulting orthography (i.e. the prescribed letters) are linguistic signs (inflectional endings, morphemes) or non-signs. The model thus consists of four types of normative orthography, i.e. autonomous expression orthography (Danish: autonom udtryksortografi), autonomous content orthography (Danish: autonom indholdsortografi), mirrored expression orthography (Danish: spejlet udtryksortografi) and mirrored content orthography (Danish: spejlet indholdsortografi). Among these, mirrored expression orthography constitutes the core domain, followed by mirrored content orthography, which has been a growing domain after the 1889-directives, and autonomous content orthography, which is a potentially growing domain.
The term Fr. confixe is not new and was used for the first time in 1982 but at present it is actually only used in German language linguistic literature. Confixes are morphemes of Latin and Greek origin that can form words with stems, affixes and other confixes. The article is an attempt at describing the confix øko- in the Danish language as well as its semantic and morphological properties. The status of confixes is unusual because they are actually bound morphemes with the exception that two confixes can form a word. The use of øko- shows that it is on the way to becoming a free morpheme (root), or perhaps it has become it already.
Communication style on signs in public spaces reflects the sociocultural values of a speech community and provides insight into its preferred mode of communication with unknown communication partners. The linguistic routines present in these texts are part of professional linguistic competence. Starting with an inadequate Danish translation of a sign in a German supermarket, this article examines texts on Danish signs with the purpose of identifying and describing the inventory of patterns for this particular genre. Using Sandig’s text linguistic approach, a corpus of about 200 texts was analyzed with respect to the linguistic patterns for regulating behavior or conveying information - the most prominent linguistic actions on signs. The analysis comprises the grammatical forms, the lexical means to characterize the intended message, mitigation strategies, face saving strategies and irony as well as expressions of emotional involvement by the communicator. The results do not allow a general conclusion about preferred patterns but show the potential range of options. Two observations might be pointed out as salient, namely the use of huske ‘remember’ as presequence for getting attention or as part of the proposition and the relative scarcity of mitigating strategies.
Guðbrandur Vigfússon, an Icelander born in Galtardalur, Dalasýsla, was without doubt one of the most influential scholars of Old Norse studies of his day. His diplomatic edition of Flateyjarbók, his critical edition of Sturlunga saga, and his anthology An Icelandic Prose Reader are still of use to those without access to the relevant manuscripts. In this essay, I would like to survey his career (in Copenhagen and Oxford) as an editor of Old Norse-Icelandic texts and the legacy that he has left to his successors in the field of Old Norse studies.
H.C. Andersen’s fairy tale The Ice Maiden is in many ways very modern, especially when we take into account its formal and rhetorical devices. The narrative is not invented by the author as the story is compound of travel journeys, popular readings of the time and so on. Andersen himself indicated some of his sources. In the following paper I would like to discuss the relationship between the fairy tale and the so called „Gebirgserzählung“ from the 18th and 19th century, which was extremely popular at the time. While the core of a “Gebirgserzählung” often consists in a young couple, that after many troubles in the end comes happily together, this is not the case in The Ice Maiden, as Andersen let the protagonist die. It looks as if Andersen would argue in favour of predetermination, based on Christian belief. However, this conclusion is not convincing because it fails to explain the obvious injustice of Rudy’s fate. In what follows I suggest a rhetorical explanation of the protagonist’s death. In such a view Rudy’s death is not to be understood as predetermined, but as a result of Andersen’s fear of his own modernity. What he demonstrates is how an entire story can be the result of other stories, how literature is based on literature. But the author himself seems not to be mature for this insight and that’s the reason why he let the protagonist die.