While the principle of public participation is an acknowledged requirement of planning in most Western countries there is continuing debate, and insufficient empirical evidence, on the effectiveness of public participation in practice. This research examines the power of public participation in local planning in Scotland. The paper first identifies the principal actors in the development planning process. The institutional framework for planning in Scotland is then explained to establish the legislative and procedural context for a case study analysis of conflict between developers and the local community in a village in the metropolitan green belt. Thirdly, using a combination of analysis of planning documents, interviews with local planners and developers, and a survey of village residents the empirical study provides detailed insight on the principles, practice, and problems for public participation in local planning. This is followed by a critique of recent government initiatives to enhance public engagement in planning. Finally, a number of conclusions are presented on the prospects for more effective public participation in planning. While the empirical focus of the research is on Scotland, the findings are of general relevance for the debate over the rhetoric and reality of public participation in Western society.
Wedding tourism is a fast emerging niche market both globally and in South Africa, as destination weddings are becoming increasingly popular. Wedding industries across the world, and specifically in South Africa, are increasingly dependent on the natural environment. Wedding venues with floral gardens, farms, orchards or forests are particularly popular. Beyond the venue, flowers are important for the bouquets and decoration, with popular blooms changing year on year. Shifting phenology – the timing of annually recurrent biological events – has been identified as one of the most sensitive responses to climate change. This poses a threat to the sustainability of floral wedding venues and the floral industry relating to weddings. This exploratory study utilizes an interdisciplinary mixed-method approach to record the importance of flowers in South African weddings and the perceived threats of climate change to this subsector. The respondents reveal the importance of flowers and the outdoors in both symbolism and the enjoyment of the wedding day, and had organised their wedding date to align with flowering. Destinations highlight a lack of awareness regarding phenological threats and are relatively unperturbed about the threats of climate change. Comparison to global phenological shifts reveals that these are misplaced. There is, therefore, a need for such wedding venues to adopt adaptive strategies to preserve their environment which drives wedding tourism.
Voting is becoming of significance in Nigeria, as in many other countries in Africa. Although Nigerian electoral politics has attracted full attention from scholars, there is little research on the factors that determine voter turnout in the country at the local level, especially the South-East geopolitical zone (GPZ). This paper is a stepwise logistic regression analysis of the determinants of voting in Nsukka council in Enugu State, South-East GPZ of Nigeria. The results show that age (0.230), education (0.532), marital status (1.355), political trust (1.309) and partisanship (˗0.570) are significant predictors of voter turnout. The effect of age, education, marital status and political trust on voting is positive and statistically significant, but partisanship has a statistically significant negative relationship with voting (p<0.01). The paper highlights the importance of local level geographical differentials in the factors influencing voting in Nigeria.
The aim of the study is to evaluate the relationship between the sporting success of football clubs, their market value and the economic performance of the regions they are located in. All member states of the European Union are under consideration, taking into account the success of the clubs in the highest-ranked male national football competitions and in European cups. The data are processed at NUTS 2 level over a period of one decade (2007–2016). From a methodological point of view, it is beneficial to construct original indexes of clubs’ sporting performance – both at the national level, and an overall one that also takes into account results in international (European) competition. To determine the existence of a link between the sporting performance of the club, its market value and the economic performance of the regional level unit it is located in (measured by gross domestic product), correlation and regression analysis is utilised. For example, the results show a high positive statistical link between a club’s sporting performance and its market value, but a relevant direct statistical link has also been confirmed between the economic performance of the region and the market value of the club, with respect to its sporting success. However, the analysis also showed that the club of a relatively poor region (from a pan-European point of view) could reach above-average results at the highest European level, and vice versa – a club with a high market value, from an economically highly over-developed region, could lag behind.
Since ancient times, climate change has largely determined the fate of human civilisation, which was related mainly to changes in the structure and habitats of forest cover. In the context of current climate change, one must know the capabilities of forests to stabilise the climate by increasing biomass and carbon-depositing abilities. For this purpose, the authors compiled a database of harvest biomass (t/ha) in 900 spruce (Picea spp.) sample plots in the Eurasian area and used the methodology of multivariate regression analysis. The first attempt at modelling changes in the biomass additive component composition has been completed, according to the Trans-Eurasian hydrothermal gradients. It is found that the biomass of all components increases with the increase in the mean January temperature, regardless of mean annual precipitation. In warm zonal belts with increasing precipitation, the biomass of most of the components increases. In the process of transitioning from a warm zone to a cold one, the dependence of all biomass components upon precipitation is levelled, and at a mean January temperature of ˗30°C it becomes a weak negative trend. With an increase in temperature of 1°C in different ecoregions characterised by different values of temperature and precipitation, there is a general pattern of decrease in all biomass components. With an increase in precipitation of 100 mm in different ecoregions characterised by different values of temperature and precipitation, most of the components of biomass increase in warm zonal belts, and decrease in cold ones. The development of such models for the main forest-forming species of Eurasia will make it possible to predict changes in the productivity of the forest cover of Eurasia due to climate change.
The paper introduces a model of how workers rationally decide to which country within an area of monetary and economic integration they will move for the purposes of living and working. Since Mundell accomplished his pivotal respective analyses, the Optimal Currency Area (OCA) literature has highlighted the importance of the reallocation of the labour force within common currency areas in order to cushion asymmetric shocks. However, several studies have put into question whether such a mobility may be considered adequately effective and efficient within the Euro Zone and, hence, political solutions have been urgently requested. This paper, using the concept of employment protection legislation (EPL), looks at the impact of the different flexibility degrees applied among national labour markets on the international labour movements within the Euro Zone, and it then proposes a reform of such in terms of the degrees of flexibility that could achieve the optimal point.
The article presents an assessment of the potential of the cultural sector in Poland from a regional perspective. The author analysed statistical data from 2005–2017 on changes in demand for selected cultural products and services. A conclusion was reached using linear sequencing, which aimed to establish a value for a synthetic indicator showing the situation of the cultural sector in the regions. This indicator was calculated on the basis of characteristics referring to cultural infrastructure resources, cultural activities, cultural expenditure and income in the cultural sector. In the obtained list of regions, the highest places were achieved by the Lubelskie, Zachodniopomorskie and Dolnośląskie voivodships. The weakest result was achieved by the Świętokrzyskie Voivodship. However, the scores obtained were generally low – none of the regions achieved high scores in all partial values. Considering the relatively small differences between the values of the indicator, it is possible that the obtained picture will change due, among others, to the high dynamics of changes in expenditures being incurred in the cultural sector.
Effective water and sewage management is one of the most important enablers of sustainable urban development. In Poland, water and sewage management has been undergoing systematic transformation since the 1990s. This process intensified with Poland’s accession to the European Union in 2004. The aim of the work is to analyse and evaluate water and sewage management in cities in Poland in terms of sustainable development. This was made possible by selecting seven variables from which a summative index (SI) was calculated. The analysis revealed a number of positive changes that have occurred in this field. These were mainly: a decrease in water consumption in households and industry, and an increased share of wastewater treated biologically or using enhanced nutrient removal in total wastewater. An increase in SI was found in 98% of the researched cities. The largest improvement in water and sewage management took place in cities of populations below 100,000 and little industry, and in three large cities, namely Warsaw and Szczecin.
This paper presents selected issues related to the observation, assessment and development of urban and rural public spaces. Therefore, its initial part focuses on the specific nature of these spaces, and in particular on their functions and on problems in their development. It also describes features of urban and rural public spaces, which will be a prelude to the issue of qualitative assessment of the subject at hand. The method applied here can be used for the analysis of each urban space selected, thus strengthening the practical nature of this study. While over 80 public spaces have been analysed, the paper itself focuses only on the case studies that demonstrate the specific nature of the analysis that was carried out. The analysis process as a whole is only referred to in the summary.
The present study represents a social and geographical analysis of the spatial distribution of pharmacies in Craiova city using GIS methods. This study aims to present the evolution in the pharmacies’ number, location, density and accessibility to the population of Craiova city on the background of an analysis of European and national legislation concerning the pharmaceutical sector. The paper also outlines the uneven distribution of pharmacies in the city by analysing the ratio between the number of pharmacies and the number of people within a district. Distance and time are considered important, especially when using different transport types. Indicators like density of pharmacies, distribution of population density, and population size in districts were taken into account in this study. Although the GIS-based analysis revealed that accessibility of pharmacies in terms of time and distance and the ratio of population size to number of pharmacies were both good and had increased over the years, the study also indicated residential areas with no pharmacy, and therefore an uneven distribution of pharmaceutical services.