A systematic approach to measure the differences between Mohr-Coulomb (MC) and Drucker-Prager (DP) shear strength criteria used commonly in soil and rock mechanics is presented. It is shown that the DP criterion generates a shear strength between 0.6 and 3 times the MC strength, for the same friction angle and cohesion parameters. The appropriate conditions for obtaining equal shear strengths are given. Moreover, some new DP failure surfaces are proposed which minimize the differences relative to the MC predictions. The equivalence of the DP and MC criteria under plane strain conditions is also examined.
This paper analyses the effects of loads that change their location, i.e. moving but quasi-static loads. Displacements defining the deformation of the soil–steel structure’s shell buried in soil are calculated from the results of measurements performed using a dense grid of points located on the circumferential section of the corrugated plate. In this way, all the components of the structure, namely the corrugated plate, the backfill and the pavement with its foundation, as well as the natural (real) principles of their interaction, are taken into account in the solution. In the proposed algorithm, unit strains are converted into displacements, whereby results as accurate as the ones obtained by direct experimental measurements are obtained. The algorithm’s main advantages are that the number of points is limitless, they are regularly distributed on the circumferential section of the shell and any displacement directions can be obtained. Consequently, the deformations of the shell can be faithfully reproduced. The algorithm’s convenient feature is that one can use a simplified computational diagram of the shell in the form of a beam having the shape of the shell in 2D space (without the other components of the soil–steel structure). The advantage of this measuring method (electric resistance tensometry) is that there is no need to build the solid scaffold used for displacement measurements. The research focuses on the analysis of the displacements and the unit strains arising during the primary and secondary (return) travel of the load.
Ground improvement with granular piles increases the load-carrying capacity, reduces the settlement of foundations built on the reinforced ground and is also a good alternative to concrete pile. Granular piles or stone columns are composed of granular material, such as crushed stone or coarse dense sand. An analytical approach based on the continuum approach is presented for the non-linear behaviour of the granular pile. The formulation for pile element displacement is done considering the non-homogeneity of the granular pile as it reflects the true behaviour and also accounts for the changes in the state of the granular pile due to installation, stiffening and improvement effects. The present study shows that the settlement influence factor for an end-bearing granular pile decreases with increase in the relative stiffness of the bearing stratum. The settlement influence factor decreases with increase in linear and non-linear non-homogeneity parameters for all values of relative length. For a shorter pile, the rate of decrease of the settlement influence factor is greater in comparison to that for a longer pile. Shear stress at the soil–granular pile interface reduces in the upper compressible portion of the granular pile and increases in the lower stiffer portion of the granular pile due to the non-homogeneity of an end-bearing granular pile.
The instability of saturated granular soils in field conditions generates drastic collapse in terms of runoff deformation because of its failing to sustain naturally applied loading conditions such as earthquakes, wave actions and vibrations. The objective of this laboratory investigation is to study the effects of the depositional methods, overconsolidation ratio (OCR) and confining pressure on the undrained instability shear strength of medium dense (Dr = 52%) sand–silt mixtures under static loading conditions. For this purpose, a series of undrained monotonic triaxial tests were carried out on reconstituted saturated silty sand samples with fines content ranging from 0% to 40%. Three confining pressures were used (P’c = 100, 200 and 300 kPa) in this research. The sand–silt mixture samples were prepared using two depositional methods, dry funnel pluviation (DFP) and wet deposition (WD), and subjected to two OCRs (1 and 2). The obtained instability lines and friction angles indicate that the funnel pluviated samples exhibit strain hardening compared to the wet deposited samples and that normally consolidated and overconsolidated wet deposited clean sandy samples were very sensitive to static liquefaction. The test results also indicate that the instability friction angle increases with the increase in the OCR expressing soil dilative character tendency increase. The instability friction angle decreases with the increase in the fines content for DFP and the inverse tendency was observed in the case of WD.
Nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy is commonly accepted in the community of geotechnical engineers using advanced finite element software for solving complex soil–structure interaction problems. However, further design procedure of the structural elements is carried out using increased values of the computed elastic stress resultants. It is absolutely not clear whether this method is conservative and, therefore, whether safe or not. To tackle this problem, a fully consistent nonlinear analysis of a deep excavation protected by the diaphragm wall is analysed here. The subsoil is modelled using the Hardening Soil model, while reinforced concrete is modelled using the modified Lee–Fenves model enhanced by the Eurocode 2 (EC2)-compatible creep module, developed by the author. It is shown that the commonly used nonlinear soil–linear structure computational strategy may yield insufficient amount of reinforcement from the ultimate limit state (ULS) and serviceability limit state (SLS) points of view. A consistent and conservative method of combining fully nonlinear analysis and the rules imposed by the EC2 is proposed.
Knowledge of the mechanical behaviour of ballast is very important for designing a railway track, especially for high-speed lines. The monotonic drained triaxial tests of scaled and fouled ballast presented in literature were analysed using the Frictional State Theory. The stress–plastic dilatancy relationship shows that four characteristic stages of shearing may be specified. The influence of stress level and water content may be quantified by the use of the Frictional State Theory.
This paper shows an example of the grouping of piezocone penetration test (CPTU) characteristics using functional data analysis, together with the results of clustering, in the form of a subsoil rigidity model. The subsoil rigidity model was constructed based on layer separation using the proposed method, as well as the k-means method. In the construction of the subsoil rigidity model, the constrained modulus M was applied. These moduli were determined from empirical relationships for overconsolidated and normally consolidated soils from Poland based on cone tip resistance.
The paper presents tests set-ups for experiments on sorption kinetics and gas filtration kinetics in a porous medium. It was observed that two phenomena occur in these processes: transportation of gas into the porous solid and settling of gas molecules on the walls of the solid or within its volume. An experiment was carried out in which a thin resistance thermometer was quickly taken out of an argon stream and placed in carbon dioxide or the other way round. The measurement made it possible to determine the sorption time constant. It was demonstrated that the sorption rate is much higher than the filtration rate. Thus, filtration is the process describing the rate at which gas molecules penetrating the porous substance are adsorbed or desorbed. The sorption time constant is not >50 m.
In the second experiment, the author determined the rate at which gas is liberated from coal grains. The measurement method was based on measurement of the pressure of desorbing gas in constant volume. The experiment involved measurement of the pressure of the gas liberated from the coal grains in a closed chamber. The kinetic curves obtained in this way were used to determine the carbon dioxide coefficient in coal grains. During the experiment, particular focus was put on the initial stage of gas liberation (up to 0.4 s).
The slower process of gas transporting in the porous structure of coal is the transporting of gas through a coal briquette. Experimentally implemented variety of boundary conditions allowed for a more complete verification of the assumed theoretical model and possibly for the exact determination of filtration parameters. The experimental set-up built for this purpose, allows for pressure and temperature measurement on the briquette side surface.
Some important modern problems of the transport engineering, which occur in the newly built and modernised road objects, have been indicated in the work. A discussion was conducted regarding the methods of assessing the stability of slopes of the road embankments, the obtained stability margins and the interpretation of obtained results in the specific cases of foundations of the road earth structures. Presented observations result from analysing the stability assessments of slopes of the road embankments, which was conducted on many communication objects, characterised by high variability of foundation conditions.
The problem is a continuation of the research conducted at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Institute of Building Engineering. It concerns the development of methods for the interpretation of the shear modulus measurements based on the tests conducted on a torsional shear (TS) apparatus. The issue has significant importance in determining the deformation parameters, essential to perform numerical simulations of the interaction between a geotechnical structure and the subsoil. The purpose of this study was to conduct a comparative analysis of the various methods of interpretation of research results based on direct and reverse analysis, as well as automated classification of the first cycle of the relationship between the shear stress and the shear strain components obtained from the TS test. The methodology for verification of the presented interpretative methods consists in carrying out a series of laboratory tests on non-cohesive and cohesive samples of different granulation and state parameters. The course of the research includes the following steps: elaboration of the granulometric composition of several samples of soil, determination of soil index properties and execution of TS tests. Various methods of interpretation of obtained results were taken into account, in addition to conducting a comparative analysis. The study used a non-standard interpretation approach consisting of analysing one-fourth of the hysteresis loop of the first load–unload cycle of the tested samples. The obtained results confirmed the hypothesis that it is possible to estimate the degradation value of the shear modulus based on a part of the TS test results carried out under quasi-monotonic load conditions. The proposed methods of interpreting test results have confirmed their high usefulness, which is devoid of the uncertainty associated with standardised resonant column/TS testing.