The paper presents application of Particle Image Velocimetry for determination of an airfoil’s drag coefficient in wind tunnel tests. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using PIV as an alternative to pressure rake measurements, especially at high angles of attack. The integral momentum concept was applied for determination of fluid drag from experimental low speed wind tunnel data. The drag coefficient was calculated from velocity and pressure rake data for intermediate angles of attack from 5° to 10°. Additionally, the experimental results were compared to panel method results. After validating the procedures at low angles of attack, the drag coefficient was calculated at close to critical angles of attack. The presented study proved that PIV technique can be considered as an attractive alternative for drag coefficient determination of an airfoil.
Carbon-epoxy composite materials, due to their high strength in relation to mass, are increasingly used in the construction of aircraft structures, however, they are susceptible to a number of damages. One of the most common is delamination, which is a serious problem in the context of safe operation of such structures. As part of the TEBUK project, the Institute of Aviation has developed a methodology for forecasting the propagation of delamination. In order to validate the proposed method, an aerial structure demonstrator, modelled on the horizontal stabilizer of the I-23 Manager aircraft, was carried out. However, in order to carry out the validation, it was necessary to "simplify" the demonstrator model. The paper presents a numerical analysis conducted in order to separate from the TEBUK demonstrator model a fragment of the structure, which was used to study the delamination area, as an equivalent of the whole demonstrator. Subcomponent selection was carried out in several stages, narrowing down the analysed area covering delamination in subsequent steps and verifying the compliance of specific parameters with the same parameters obtained in a full demonstrator model. The parameters compared were: energy release rate values on the delamination front line and strain values in the delamination area. The numerical analyses presented in the paper were performed with the use of the MSC.Marc/Mentat calculation package. As a result of the analyses, a fragment of the structure was selected, which allows to significantly reduce the time and labour consumption of the production of the studied object, as well as to facilitate experimental research.
Stratospheric balloons are very important sources for space and terrestrial observation experiments in many disciplines. Instruments developed for astrophysical measurements are usually reusable. It is also possible to observe both hemispheres including observations from the polar and equatorial regions for thirty days or even longer. On the other hand the UV atmospheric transmittance window was used for the astrophysical observations less often than visible optical bands. At the end of the 2017 there are a few scientific groups working on near-UV or UV spectrographs and cameras for balloon flights.
In this paper we are discussing the possibility of ultraviolet measurement of Enceladus, an icy Saturnian moon, surface reflectance between 200 and 400 nm from the 20-50 km altitudes. At visible and near infrared optical channels Enceladus’ reflectance is very high (near 1.0). This value is consistent with a surface composed of water ice, however at some ultraviolet wavelengths Enceladus reflectance is lower than it would be expected for this type of surface. The scientific research done in the last decade was focused on H2O, NH3, and tholin particles detection on the Enceladus’ surface as a reason of low UV reflectance phenomenon. Continuous observation of Enceladus’ UV reflectance variability from stratospheric balloons may be interesting and may give us the proof of the presence of biomarkers or/and tholin particles.
European Commision adopted in July new regulations about laying down airspace usage requirements and operating procedures concerning performance based navigation. It is next step in realization of the the global program PBN ICAO. At the 36th General Assembly of ICAO held in 2007, the Republic of Poland agreed to ICAO resolution A36-23 which urges all States to implement PBN. In future aviation concepts the use of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) is considered to be a major Air Traffic Management (ATM) concept element. ICAO has drafted standards and implementation guidance for PBN in the ICAO Doc 9613 “PBN Manual”. The Based Performance Navigation Concept represents and shift from sensor-based to performance based navigation connected with criteria for navigation: accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity and functionality depending on the phase of the flight. Through PBN and changes in the communication, surveillance and ATM domain, many advanced navigation applications are possible to improve airspace efficiency, improve airport sustainability, reduce the environmental impact of air transport in terms of noise and emission, increase safety and improve flight efficiency.
Letychiv (pl. Latyczów) is a town located in central Ukraine in the Khmelnytskyi Oblast. It has a unique and complicated history. Second World War left it in ruin, destroying buildings, infrastructure and decimating its once large population. Perhaps the most prominent part of the town currently is the building Dominican convent with adjoin Letychiv Assumption Church. This object is surrounded by what is left of the previously impressive Letychiv Castle, founded by Jan Potocki in 1598. Past 30 years have been dedicated by this small Catholic parish towards rebuilding monastery-castle-church complex. Since this is an ongoing project, it was decided to perform a photographic inventory of the current state of the construction and to create a 3D digital model of the castle, facade of the church and monastery, and the altar. This task have proven to be difficult due to complicated structure of the object. Facades and inner parts of the church are almost white with limited number of distinctive elements, painted in pail gold. Elements other than white are almost identical to each other. It leads to various errors in the processing of Structure-from-motion. This article describes how various versions of SfM algorithm work thru mention difficulties, compares results in terms of accuracy, level of detail and overall look. It also describes how SfM can help to document various stages of restoration of important historical objects.
Along with the development of the technology of drone construction (UAV - Unmanned Aerial Vehicles), the number of applications of these solutions in the industry also grew. The aim of the research is to check the accuracy of data obtained using the new technology of UAV scanning and to compare them with one that is widely spread - high-altitude airborne Lidar, in terms of quality and spectrum of applications in industry and infrastructure. The research involved two infrastructure objects: a reinforced concrete one-span bridge and Lattice transmission tower with powerlines. The density of measurement, internal and external cohesion of point clouds obtained from both methods were compared. Plane fitting and deviation analysis were used. The data of UAV origin in both cases provided a sufficient density, allowing the recognition of structural elements, and internal coherence and precision of measurements important in modeling. The study shows that UAV mounted scanning may be used in the same applications as Airborne Lidar, as well as in other tasks requiring greater precision.
Damage detection in concrete gravity dams using Hilbert-Huang Method, as one of the most common signal processing techniques, is studied in this research. After considering a typical geometry for dams, damage is modelled by a reduction in the modulus of elasticity in the dam’s body (in three levels of damage) and in different areas of the structure. The dam is excited by a horizontal earthquake and the primary natural frequencies of the dam are calculated by applying Hilbert-Huang Method to the measured response, which is the acceleration of five points in the system. Based on the changes in the frequencies of the damaged and undamaged structure, a parameter, called relative frequency error, has been introduced. The results show that the proposed criterion used in this study can not only properly identify the location of damage but also predict the severity of the structural damage in concrete gravity dams accurately.
The paper concentrates on post-processing of data necessary for pressure measurements using Pressure Sensitive Paints (PSP). The purpose of the study was to develop and test procedures for extraction of the surface pressure distribution from the images captured during PSP tests. The core issues addressed were reduction of the influence of model movement and deformation during wind tunnel run and synchronization between conventional pressure tap measurements and PSP data, necessary for in-situ calibration. In the course of the studies, two approaches on image registration were proposed: the first based on geometric transformation of control points pairs with cross-correlation tuning and the second based on similarity finding and estimation of geometric transformation of the images. Performance of the developed algorithm was tested with use of experimental set-up allowing for controlled movement of the imagined target with micrometer resolution. Both of the proposed approaches to PSP image resection proved to perform well. After testing of the software, the PSP system was used for determination of the pressure field on flat plate exposed to impinging jet. The presented procedures and results can be useful for research groups developing in-house PSP measurements systems for wind tunnel tests and internal flow investigations.
Cement is a common and widespread building material over the world. Similarly, carbon dioxide emissions have been significantly increased due to cement production. Alternative low-carbon binders rather than cement have been progressively sought in recent years. Fly ash was found as an available option, since it is being largely disposed annually as a waste material. In this research several studies have been reviewed and recent applications of fly ash on concrete specification, including strength and fracture toughness of green concrete have been perused. Furthermore, transport properties of high volume fly ash after exposure to high temperature and influence of curing temperature on strength development of fly ash-recycled concrete aggregate blends have been investigated. The investigated test results showed that the properties of composites incorporating fly ash depend on the age of the concrete. Test results also revealed that transport properties of concrete increased notably after exposure to 400cº and the results achieved on fly ash-recycled concrete aggregate led to the conclusion that 15% FA is the optimum blend for road stabilization applications.
The article aims to present the results of analysis and evaluation of using energy clusters as a bulk electricity storage. There were developed an analytical model of a sample microgrid (on-grid) and analysed using a software dedicated for optimizing such microgrids. The model of microgrid consist on electricity commercial and residential loads, photovoltaic and wind installations and batteries.