Canada is often put forward as an example of forward thinking on inclusiveness and gender balance. However, for the last 30 years, while gender diversity progress has been made within Canadian government agencies, commissions and boards (ABCs), the private sector continues to lag behind, stuck trying to break through the barrier of 18-22% females on Boards. This occurs while mounting empirical evidence clearly indicates that it is not just the right thing to do, it is the smart thing to do. This paper looks at where progressive government change has generated results and potential avenues necessary to make gender equality a reality within both the government and private sector beyond 2018. The author reviews the methods used by the Canadian government to achieve gender parity, ending with some insights on how the private sector could implement gender parity without the use of quotas.
The main objective of the paper is to verify the vanishing interim regime hypothesis (so-called bipolar view) and to analyse factors that may influence the probability of use of intermediate exchange rate regimes, especially in emerging and developing economies. In order to accomplish the research objectives the evolution of exchange rate regimes is presented with the special consideration of decisions of IMF member states in this respect. Next a logistic regression model that estimates the probability of use of an intermediate regime is applied. The results achieved allow a challenge to the vanishing interim regime hypothesis. Empirical observations support this hypothesis only in advanced countries and not in their emerging and developing peers.
Court packing greatly threatens democracy. This paper examines, compares and draws conclusions from two attempts: The PiS government is near to packing Polish courts; President Roosevelt tried but failed to pack the U.S. Supreme Court in 1937. In most democracies a head of government with a legislative majority and strong party control can pack courts, giving complete control. The United States escaped; Roosevelt lacked complete party control. Poland is unlucky; PiS is strongly controlled. Peaceful domestic protest is necessary, but Poland’s hope is from EU-level institutional pressure, supported by major democracies, to reverse packing and prevent further seizure of power.
From October 2017 the European Union envisages the abolition of the so-called sugar quotas and minimum prices for buying sugar beet. As a consequence of these changes the sugar levies paid by the sugar factories of the Member States will cease to apply. The article identifies the fiscal effects of the abolition of these levies. The European Union and the Member States will lose some of their budget revenues. The structure of Member States’ burdens for GNI payments will also change as well as their operating balance relative to the EU budget. Through the change Poland will gain, whereas some large net contributors will lose, i.e. the Netherlands, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
The aim of this paper is to identify and assess, on a comparative, intra-country basis, the existing practices and developments in central bank accountability for financial stability, from a new-macroprudential policy-perspective. The paper aims to contribute to the ongoing debate on institutional arrangements for macroprudential policy. The debate as to whether the combination of monetary policy and financial supervision within one institution is not new. Nevertheless it is far from being resolved. The paper points to the need to establish clear, formal and robust mechanisms of central bank involvement in the process of executing macroprudential policy, at least as a data collection and analyzing institution.
In the light of Schumpeter’s pioneering vision of economic evolution the innovations and innovative entrepreneurs play a fundamental role in the economic development. However, imitations and producers-imitators are essential in diffusing and adapting innovations into the economic exchange processes. In this context the aim of the paper is to model and analyse some properties of imitative mechanisms appearing within the economic evolution. Innovative and imitative mechanisms defined in Hurwicz’s conceptual apparatus are analysed in the economy determined by the use of topological tools usually applied in the general equilibrium theory. As a result it is shown that, in the economy under study, imitative mechanisms are the reasons for and the consequences of innovative mechanisms as well as that the innovative and imitative processes can coexist in the framework of the same innovative mechanism. Moreover it is proven that under some assumptions equilibrium in the economic system analysed can be obtained as a consequence of either of an innovative or an imitative mechanism.
The aim of the article is to present consumer attitudes in Poland in respect of modern solutions in the retail trade and the influence which these attitudes have on their behaviour in the market. The considerations were conducted using methods of logical inference, based on a critical analysis of available derivative sources and conclusions from quantitative research conducted on a sample of 1.075 consumers. In order to analyse more deeply the research results a cluster analysis was conducted using one of the hierarchical methods - the Ward’s method. Respondents’ attitudes towards modern solutions in the retail trade are generally positive. However they are not always recognized by them. A large percentage of respondents declared that they are not acquainted with particular forms of modern retail trade (mostly Beacon, PSS or RIFID systems). They were mostly consumers from the ‘retreated skeptics’ group, in other words the elderly with basic or vocational education from small towns and villages. The research findings presented may be used by trade enterprises in order to answer to the identified need of consumers from generation Z and to set out the direction of the technological education of consumers and increase the availability of particularised solutions
The purpose of this study is to identify whether the gathering of market information from different sources - i.e. from customers, competitors and other entities - is related to product innovativeness. The relationships proposed so far have not been empirically investigated but they can have important theoretical and practical implications for product innovation. To achieve the purpose of the paper data concerning 287 new products were used by applying confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. The findings indicate that the obtaining of market information from customers and market entities, other than customers and competitors, has a positive impact on product innovativeness, but there was no such relationship in the case of gathering information from competitors
The number of Internet users in Poland is permanently increasing, the vast majority of Y generation use the Internet at least once a week, while the youngest generation (born after 2000) consider the Internet to be a part of their normal life. Shopping online should be something natural and ordinary for Internet users and the main barriers of the development of e-commerce such as security of transactions, time and cost of delivery are regarded as a standard and truism. The ROPO effect is a major problem for the rapid development of the e-commerce sector. However, the analyzed clothing industry, due to the individual characteristics of products, is a different e-commerce area than others. The obtained results indicate that about 33% of women and men use the Internet as a place to get information about clothing products. Research Online, Purchase Offline, that is, search for information, reviews, or online prices, while buying in the traditional way. The purpose of the publication is to identify the size of the ROPO effect the clothing industry. In order to meet this goal, we analyzed the results of more than 4.000 respondents who have recently purchased clothing products