The content presented in the article is a continuation of the research on the quality of data concerning intra-Community trade. Several measures used in literature to assess differences between mirror data are presented. The research was inspired by the works by , , and . These previous works contain some directions on how Intrastat data should be analysed. Based on this the analysed data on intra-Community trade in goods for 2017. The dynamics of intra-Community trade were also examined. The obtained results can be utilised by practitioners from both the domain of official statistics and the revenue authorities. In the article discrepancies in data on Polish foreign trade are studied in the context of Poland-EU partner country (bilateral relations) and Poland-EU partners (one-to-many relations). The aim of the article is to compare the results of selected literature studies with those obtained on the basis of the analysis of the latest data on intra-Community trade in Poland (mainly in 2017) and EU member states.
The main goal of this research is to analyse the investment benefits from an incorporation of the volatility exposure to the diversified portfolio from the perspective of a Polish investor. Volatility, treated as a new asset class, may improve the performance of the portfolio due to its negative correlation with most types of assets. This topic has been widely investigated for the United States and Europe whereas the Polish market appears to be not heavily researched and this study may fill this gap. The research covers the period from October 2010 to July 2018 and is performed on daily close prices. To construct the portfolios the analysis uses the mean-variance framework and the naïve diversification approach. The comparison of risk-adjusted returns between investments with and without volatility exposure enables an answer to the research question about an improvement of the results by the addition of a non-standard asset to the diversified portfolios. The VXX is considered as the proxy for volatility as it is the most popular ETN which follows the volatility index derivatives with the given maturity. To test the robustness of the results the portfolios are constructed with a broad range of different parameters and assumptions imposed on the optimization procedure.
The purpose of many real world applications is the prediction of rare events, and the training sets are then highly unbalanced. In this case, the classifiers are biased towards the correct prediction of the majority class and they misclassify a minority class, whereas rare events are of the greater interest. To handle this problem, numerous techniques were proposed that balance the data or modify the learning algorithms. The goal of this paper is a comparison of simple random balancing methods with more sophisticated resampling methods that appeared in the literature and are available in R program. Additionally, the authors ask whether learning on the original dataset and using a shifted threshold for classification is not more competitive. The authors provide a survey from the perspective of regularized logistic regression and random forests. The results show that combining random under-sampling with random forests has an advantage over other techniques while logistic regression can be competitive in the case of highly unbalanced data.
With the increase in global spatial mobility the importance of migration policy (including integration policy) is increasing day by day, both in developed countries and new market economies. In the course of the research on migration policy various measures were constructed. Even though the particular measures relate to different areas of migration policy, they do not refer to the effectiveness of migration policy. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of the integration of immigrants into the labour market in the countries that belong to the Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development (OECD) and to analyse the relationships between these effects and the integration policy adopted by the individual countries. The TOPSIS (Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to an Ideal Solution) method and the CRITIC (Criteria Importance Through Intercriteria Correlation) method were used in the research. The results indicate that the highest effectiveness of migration policy in terms of integration of immigrants into the labour market was reported in the following OECD countries: Iceland, Switzerland and New Zealand. The results also suggest that the higher the level of integration policy restrictiveness in a given country, the worse the effects in terms of integration of immigrants into the labour market that were noticed by this country.
Insurers wanting to provide protection against unforeseen losses should establish an appropriate level of reserves, which should balance the risk borne by the insurer so as to guarantee the financial security of the insured. The system including the financing requirements tailored to the real risks is called the Solvency II. According to that the valuation of classic life insurance should consider the real risk, which includes risk of death and the change in value of money over time. This method of calculating reserves does not ensure the protection of collected funds by aggregation and the individual risk of longevity, which may negatively affect the long-term financial stability of insurers as well as the level of financial security for the insured. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to modify the calculation methods and, above all, to correct reserves within the period of insurance, taking into account the current expectation of the future projected length.
Following Chilean experiences as well as the World Bank suggestions post-communist Poland and post-collectivist Israel—underwent deep reforms which led to the privatization of old age security. The aim of the article is to compare the Polish and Israeli paths of pension privatization in the last thirty years. The main conclusions are: (1) the economic, demographic and political environments at the moment of the design and implementation of the pension reform were quite similar in both countries; however (2) the scope and scale of the privatization was different: in Poland there was only partial shift towards private pension system while in Israel full privatization of the system was implemented; (3) the decisive factors were: the inertia of the already existing pension systems and the power of foreign influencers; (4) the retreat from privatization in Poland and the increase in Israel took place due to the different mix of disadvantages of the new pension arrangements, short-term political aims and international pressure.
Sub-Saharan African countries are among the poorest countries in the world and there is a need to develop their economies. Researchers suggest the promotion of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) to foster economic development in countries. Internationalisation has been proved to be a key strategy for SME growth. This study investigates the effect of internationalisation on manufacturing SME growth in Kenya. Kenya is a developing country and the leading economy in the East African community. Using data from the World Bank enterprise survey, a sample of 94 SMEs operating in Kenya between 2013 and 2018 was selected. Multiple linear regression analysis using ordinary least square (OLS) was applied and the results revealed that internationalisation through direct exports contributed positively to the growth of manufacturing SMEs in Kenya. The findings of the study suggest that policy makers should promote internationalisation of SMEs in Kenya to improve the doing business environment in general and remove external barriers to internationalisation of SMEs at the national and international level in particular.
The study examines the impacts of entrepreneurship on income inequality in a panel of 29 Sub-Saharan African countries spanning from 2004 to 2020. The paper employs a dynamic heterogeneous panel approach to differentiate between long-run and short-run impacts of entrepreneurship on income inequality. The findings establish a robust and direct nexus between entrepreneurial activities and income disparity. The results of the two entrepreneurial indicators are stable. Besides, the coefficient of the human capital is positive in the regression and statistically significant at a 5 percent significance level. The proxies for macroeconomic factors exhibit diverse signs and impact, which suggest a policy stimulus aimed at refining macroeconomic situations and also ignite prospects for households to increase their incomes.